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Willie J. Elder

Contents of Curriculum Unit 81.04.06:

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This unit will provide the teacher with a methodology for teaching students to write detailed and expressive sentences.

With careful planning, a teacher can adapt this technique to teach content in all areas of the curriculum. Sentence-combining refers to the manipulation of phrases and clauses to write more complex sentences. There are three primary objectives for this unit; sentence-combining:

1) Positive feedback leads to a positive image. This unit will encourage teachers to view their students as persons who possess the ability to write well. This capacity exists by the time the child enters the classroom. The child has been exposed to the English language and uses facial expressions, pauses, and pitch to convey meaning. The student is the author and user of the language.

Students utter sentences, which in written form would be of great length and complexity. The teacher recognizes these language capabilities and builds upon them by facilitating growth in areas of weakness and providing positive feedback. This feedback is essential in helping the student develop a positive self-image, and confidence in transferring thoughts to paper. It is only in an atmosphere of acceptance of a student’s natural and sometimes primitive language abilities can we spot weaknesses and tailor a curriculum which will fit their needs.

2) The teacher can use the textbook as a tool to reinforce sentence-combining techniques, although a thorough knowledge of traditional English grammar is not needed. The textbook can be beyond the reading levels of students and become useless. This technique is mechanical and assumes no knowledge of student proficiency in the study of grammar. Simply stated, this is a language-based set of writing exercises to promote syntactical maturity in expressive and descriptive writing.

3) Students will be able to combine sentences as a result of exposure to this technique. The results should indicate that students are able to combine sentences of a simple or complex structure.

Sources of material which will be used will be included on the bibliographical page. The key source is Frank O’Hare’s Sentence-Combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar.

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Many linguists have provided theories on the use of language and how it changes. Noam Chomsky altered linguistic thought with ideas on language and its use. This section will observe several of Chomsky’s notions in order to form a conceptual framework which may be helpful to the teacher that uses this technique.

Chomsky had many ideas about language. He did not confine his view to Greek and Latin as representative languages, but was able to elaborate on patterns common to all languages. This section will focus on these notions, which, if are useable, will serve to help the teacher conceptualize a model of language sufficient to incorporate this technique and rethink their notions of learning and language. Naturally this discussion is not meant to convince or even suggest that these theories are truths that are established, but to provide the user with a basis for further investigation.

Chomsky thought that every human being has the capacity to communicate the language of their respective culture. Despite the obvious differences in human qualities and traits, all members of the species could make utterances which were new and able to be understood. He sought to develop a model of language which would speak to the use of the language and the range of possibilities regarding its use.

Language is a reflection of its culture. Chomsky asserts that the form of language reflects the form of the mind and their existed matters of performance and competence. The language of each culture may differ according to their level of development, however, this need not necessarily be the case. For example, a native population in South America may possess a language which is totally suitable to their needs. This does not necessarily connote an inferior language or, as in the case of the individuals, an inferior mind. Given exposure to more elements and experiences the language will shift and fit the needs of the native speakers. Despite cultural differences, languages do possess similar patterns. One obvious pattern is the ability of a speaker of a language to be able to distinguish words that are not of their language and those that are, even though they may never have heard the utterances.

The following principles, or patterns of language as defined by Chomsky, can provide the conceptual basis for the sentence-combining technique.

1) Duality of structure: this term refers to two levels of grammatic structure. The primary or syntactic level of analysis means that sentences are composed of singular units which when strung together provide meaning and sound. Sound refers to the phonological or secondary level whereby sentences are characterized as being composed of a pattern of symbols that indicate phonemes or sounds.

2) Creativity: refers to the open-endedness of the language. Creativity is a principle which puts forth the notion that all members of the human species possess the capacity to create new utterances. Also this principle asserts that members can understand new utterances and recognize them as being a part of the language.

These patterns reflect in a general way the basic elements of language. There are others which will be discussed further along. It is important to note, if we accept these principles as valid, the skills which the child brings to the classroom. Of course differences in environment, income, and cultural awareness, are but a few of the factors which may contribute to the development of a child’s language system. Yet there are basic uses of the language which, for the most part, occur unconsciously as the individual seeks to communicate.

The primary level is important because it deals with syntax, the orderly sequence of units to convey a particular message. Students are able to recognize the proper order of words in their speech, and would need remedial assistance if this were not the case. Students seem to possess an intuitive sense of the correctness of syntax in their speech pattern which is related to their linguistic competence. Because of the diverse nature of society, students need to be able to communicate their thoughts in a variety of forms. Too often, particularly in urban settings, students are only able to communicate the language of their immediate environment. They are not cognizant of the manipulation of the language in specific situations. Although they do manipulate language in other instances within that environment. For example, a child may communicate differently with his peers than his teachers.

The problem results when the child does not possess forms necessary to sustain his survival in the much larger world. As teachers we must expose students to as many communication forms as possible to facilitate the use of their linguistic intuition or competence on paper. The sentence-combining technique can be employed to encourage students to write more complex sentences which sometimes characterize their normal everyday spoken language.

The phonological level is crucial for students in terms of reading, writing, and comprehensive skills. Students must be able to associate words and letters. When students misspell words, or fail to pronounce words, this problem is related to phonology. Teachers may design a suitable phonics program. This unit will not provide suggestions for helping students to recognize word-letter combinations, but will deal with the process of combining or embedding phrases in a sentence to achieve greater clarity of written expression.

Transformational-generative grammar is another concept which has a direct bearing on the sentence-combining technique. Grammar, according to Chomsky, refers to a set of formalized rules which operate within a limited vocabulary and is capable of generating an infinite set of sentences. The aim of this grammar sounds reasonable yet it is unreasonable to expect younger students to be able to generate all of the sentences of the English language, although he has the capacity. Generating some of the sentences of the English language will result from the sentence-combining technique and will enhance syntactic maturity in student writing. This model can appraise the student of certain sentences in the language but not all.

Transformation refers to the process of manipulation through deletion, substitution, or permutation. The attempt is to rid the sentence of ambiguity and to increase accuracy of description. For example, in an imperative or command sentence, the subject is always understood to be you. (i.e., Do your homework. or You do your homework.) We delete you because it is not necessary. Thus, the former has been transformed from the latter into a concise yet meaningful form.

Chomsky proposed several models to describe language. The first model he proposed is known as generative grammar. Grammar is a set of rules which operate within a limited vocabulary and is capable of generating most of the sentences of the language. One means by which to illustrate the concept of generative grammar would be to draw a mathematical analogy. Consider the following algebraic function.

3x + 2y - z

Given that the variables x, y, and z can each take the value of the coefficients, the expression is said to generate an unlimited set of resultant values. If we say that x is 2, y is 3, and z is 6, the result is therefore 6. We can then say that the number six is capable of being generated by the algebraic expression. The rules of the function are clear and formalized. If a mistake is made, it is a problem of rule application.

We can relate this idea to the principle of creativity. Students can speak on a complex level as far as it concerns complex written sentence structures. The errors in writing should be seen as errors of performance, which can be corrected given proper rules which are understandable and readily applicable.

Chomsky draws a distinction in the generation of the sentences of a language. He stressed the fact that many of the utterances produced by native speakers (samples of their performance) will, for various reasons, be ungrammatical. The reasons have to do with linguistically irrelevant factors as lapses of memory, or attention span and malfunctions of the psychological mechanisms underlying speech. If this is true, then the linguist and the teacher cannot take the principle of creativity at its face value. The teacher must see possibilities in the raw data and must be able to eliminate all those utterances which the native speaker would recognize, by use of his intuition, as ungrammatical.

A relative term, intuition, has played a significant role in Chomsky’s theories of generative grammar. Intuition acts as a filter and is used by the native speaker to recognize whether a sentence is part of language and is able to convey a message. Intuition is synonymous with linguistic competence. It is an innate amount of knowledge which enables the native speaker to ascertain the correctness of spoken utterances.

Behaviorists argue that language is a result of stimulus and response bonds. Furthermore, that children imitate sounds and have no internalized conceptual structure of language. The evidence which supports the former view is that children are able to distinguish sounds of communication from other sounds in their environment. Also, they are able to create complex sentence structures in their speech. Moreover, students adhere to basic language patterns and can usually be understood by other speakers of the language. The fact that children are able to understand new sentences suggests that they have a sense of syntax and how it provides intended meanings. The teacher should bear in mind that the use of complex structures in speech is oft times an unconscious function of linguistic competence. The teacher has to be concerned with building a language approach or system of language use, which will deal with the specific needs of the student. Each child eventually develops his own grammar, which, like the grammar of the English language, is constantly changing. Teachers should strive to facilitate the linguistic competence usage by the student.

The study of traditional grammar has been questioned as a viable means of teaching the writing of the language. Traditionally, it was thought that traditional grammar study would improve writing skills and speech proficiency. Frank O’Hare, in his work, asserts: Grammar study is in disrepute at the present time, largely because it has failed to help students write any better. It has occupied the center of language study in the classroom, and ma people, including some grammarians, think that this is regrettable.1 O’Hare, after thorough analysis of research data, attempts to dispel the notion that grammar study alone is necessary as a prerequisite for good writing and speaking. In fact, O’Hare thinks that grammar study has been responsible for the lack of proficiency in student writing because instruction in learning how to describe a language is quite different from learning how to use and apply it effectively. He advocates the sentence-combining approach and avoidance of the negative aspects of grammar study altogether.

What if any are some of the advantages of a writing technique that does not rely on traditional grammar study? O’Hare cites examples from his and other’s research to remark: Richards, Scriven and Postman all stressed the importance of the use one makes of a skill. And that is precisely what sentence-combining practice is designed to do, to make students better able to handle English sentences. Of course, there was no suggestion here that the student would write in their free writing sentences as long as those they practiced. What was postulated in this study was that there would be a sort of “rub off” effect from sentence-combining practice with multiple embeddings (added phrases or clauses) which would lead to greater syntactic maturity. Football players practice hundreds of plays many times so that at the right time, in the right situation, a dozen or so of these moves will have become appropriate and habitual. So also with sentence-combining, only some of the operations should become habitual.2 O’Hare is suggesting that what is needed in place of grammar study is a series of simple, consistent, practical and efficient signals designed for the sole purpose of facilitating the sentence-combining operations.

A major aspect of the success encountered with this approach was due in part to a non-error oriented environment that accentuated the positive. Teachers have to be careful in providing students with positive feedback. Red marks and slashing may not encourage students to try again. Students must be made to think that their work is totally acceptable. The effect of this technique is to facilitate the development of better writing proficiency by training the memory and increasing the cognitive chunking ability of the student. By training the memory, students who use the combining operation are able to apply similar skills in their own free writing. Chunking ability is the ability of the mind to organize complex information through gradual enlargement of information which increases the memory span. Although there will be errors of performance in free writing, they should not take precedence over the use of the operation of combining. Ideally, students should use the operation in their free writing and should be applauded for that accomplishment.

The sentence-combining operation begins with a simple form; a single or kernel sentence. In order to increase the length of the sentence one has to add a word, clause, or phrase. This follows the pattern of chunking. O’Hare writes: “Non-error-oriented, grammar-study free, and wholly dependent on each individual’s inherent sense of grammaticality, the sentence-combining practice virtually guarantees student success, and success should produce a positive, acceptant classroom atmosphere that, in stressing the spirit of inquiry, would encourage syntactic experimentation and build confidence. The dais might disappear; the student as syntactic authority take over.”3

What means can the teacher employ to evaluate the progress of students? Teachers have to realize that the basis for this operation is that students possess native language skills when they come into the classroom. The challenge is to build on those skills. What is important is that teachers are able to identify areas of weakness in terms of basic language patterns. For example, if a pupil misspells a word, this is a function of phonology. A misspelled word should not reflect on a student’s use of the language but is an error of performance. The idea is to improve the performance. Research suggests that preoccupation with grammar and mechanics may dull an evaluator’s reaction. Moreover, accurate spelling is not synonymous with good composition. The basic tenet of O’Hare’s work is that written English is a dialect which is distinct from spoken English and that instruction should be based on language-learning techniques. This technique may be especially helpful with students who lack versatility of expression outside of their immediate environment. The combining operation can be perceived as a vehicle to facilitate greater expression of ideas in various forms. The success can be evaluated in terms of the length and complexity of sentences in student writing. In his analysis of the data on the subject of whether sentence-combining operation produced syntactical maturity, O’Hare cited six factors which would indicate maturity:

A. Six factors of Syntactic Maturity
____1. Words per T unit (a T-unit consists of a principle clause and any subordinate clause or non-clausal structure attached to or embedded in it)
____2. Clauses per T-unit
____3. Words per clause
____4. Noun phrases per 100 T-units
____5. Adverb clause
____6. Adjective clauses per 100 T-units
The research reviewed in O’Hare’s study has shown that as the student matures, he tends to add more sentences in his writing which results in an increase in clause and T-unit length. These increases may be attributed to cognitive development. On the other hand, they are the result of his imitation of the more mature styles that he encounters in his reading and in conversation at school. There is a developmental trend, whatever the cause. Thus, since they tend to increase with age and are indicative of linguistic maturity, the syntactic characteristics above would appear to be efficient criteria for evaluation or at least in describing syntactic maturity. The purpose of this outline of the six factors of syntactic maturity is not to urge teachers to develop an elaborate instrument to measure success in sentence-combining, but to make teachers aware of the criteria used by O’Hare. Some teachers may find the factors helpful, but remember that linguistic processes are dynamic and the sentence-combining operation is a language activity in which these processes can be simulated. The student, given positive feedback and a nonerror oriented atmosphere, is said to mature in his linguistic ability through a series of learning experiences in sentence building. More will be said about evaluation later.

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This section will provide suggestions as well as a description of the combining technique. Generally, a pair of sentences will be provided which include a transformational rule. The rule may consist of a word, phrase, or punctuation mark which can be inserted into the sentence.

Teachers of the elementary grades may find this technique helpful for several reasons. First of all, this technique can be used to illustrate the manipulation of sentences to achieve greater expression of thoughts and experiences. Secondly, the teacher can prepare the student for complex sentence structures in their textbooks and outside readings. Third, teachers can relate the use of the rules of grammar to students’ actual writing without the drawbacks of the text.

Teachers have the option of employing this technique during a reading, English, or Language Arts class. It is recommended, however, that teachers set aside time preceding or directly following the exercises for oral and silent reading. The readings could be teacher-developed or taken from the reading material appropriate for the student’s reading level. Students with learning disabilities may benefit from choral reading of the exercises, but may find the written exercises difficult.

Evaluation of student mastery can be measured by correctness of daily worksheets or weekly texts which require the combining process. An elaborate form of evaluation may include a composition wherein the student uses the technique to include complex sentence structures. It is suggested that the composition be descriptive or expository. The teacher should look for examples of sentence combining, and more specifically the use of subordinate clauses. The number of combined sentences may indicate mastery of this technique.

Ideally, teachers should develop a compositional program which would include many writing assignments and a check list of writing skills to be mastered during the course of the school year. The sentence-combining technique could be only one aspect of the compositional course. Students, therefore, should be able to incorporate this technique as a supplement to already established writing objectives. Such a technique would provide a syntactically mature writing sample. Of course, students write more proficiently with time and practice and sentence-combining enhances that growth process; yet it is unreasonable to expect the type of expansion associated with older and more able students. Research has shown that as students mature, their writing form becomes more complex. Sentence-combining can have an immediate effect on student writing performance when coupled with a thoughtful reading program which provides contexts for the use of the language and illustrates the use of complex structures by accomplished writers.

The following is a list of rules which can be used to teach students the mechanics of sentence-combining. All of the different types of exercises should be worked out orally first and then transferred to paper after students become confident with the technique.

Initially, teachers should teach the constituent parts of a sentence (i.e., doer, action, receiver of action, or subject and verb phrases). Students should then practice combining simple sentences by matching the subjects and predicates. For example: NP = Noun Phrase + VP = Verb Phrase.

John + hit the ball = John hit the ball. Once students are able to see the constituents that make up sentences, they are able to move on to the next step. (Note: Teachers may use the parts of the unit which aid in the development of specific writing skill objectives.) Students should be given practice in combining subjects (NPs) and predicates (VPs).

For example: 1) John lived in that house. 2) Mary lived in that house. 3) John and Mary lived in that house; or 1) Mary fixed the engine. 2) Mary changed the oil. 3) Mary fixed the engine and changed the oil.

The rule in these sentences may be either one of the connecting words found to be most appropriate. A more advanced example would be: 1) John is tired; 2) John cleaned the garage; 3) John is tired, but he cleaned the garage. The referent pronoun he, and conjunction but are employed.

One of the easiest ways to combine sentences is to put them together with a joining word between. The joining word establishes a relationship between the two constituents of the entire structure. The relationships usually are: 1) cause-effect, 2) time, and 3) comparison or contrast.

Here is an example: He was pleased because his work was completed.

____He was pleased when his work was completed.

____He was pleased, but somehow disappointed.

Note that a comma is used before the conjunction which can be stressed as a rule applicable to the completion of each item in the exercise. In addition, the semicolon is a punctuation mark which can be used to establish a relationship and connect two base sentences, yet reveal no particular relationship.

For example: He was pleased; his work was completed.

Other connecting words are before, although, after, just when, as soon as, if, and since. The mechanism for including any of the various mentioned here is quite simple. The rule will be seen as a mere instruction to insert that word/words at the end of the first sentence, or beginning of the result or second sentence.

For example: The men went back to work.

____The lunch break was over. (When)

____The men went back to work when the lunch break was over.

Or students can be taught to put the connecting word before the base sentence, then add the result to the end of the first sentence.

For example: When the men went back to work, the lunch break was over.

Note the comma which was inserted after the base sentence.

Teachers may find it helpful to the student to include as part of the rule, the punctuation mark in addition to the connecting word (when ,).

Another example using if as a joining word is as follows:

1. I am crying. (If) (,)

2. Something is wrong.

3. There is a problem. (;)

If I am crying , something is wrong ; there is a problem.

Note the semicolon is used before the final phrase and that a comma is inserted after ‘crying.’ The comma could just as easily be inserted as a rule after the second sentence.

Just when

1) He makes his foul shots.
____They are important. (Just when)
2) He makes his foul shots just when they are important.

1) You are aware of all literary devices employed by writers.
____(Once) (,)
2) Reading poetry is more appreciable.
Once you are aware of all literary devices employed by writers, reading poetry is more appreciable.

When / Long before

1. Rain clouds appeared. (When) (,)
____We ran into the house.
____It was time to end the cookout. (Long before)
2. When rain clouds appeared, we ran into the house long before it was time to end the cookout.
The rules -ing and with

The -ing technique involves changing a word to its -ing form and inserting that word at the beginning of the base sentence.

For example: Terry kicked the door off the hinges. (ing) (,)

____Terry was able to go in and put out the fire.

____Kicking the door off the hinges, Terry was able to go in and put out the fire.

Note that ‘kicked’ was changed to ‘kicking’ and it began the base sentence. Also, the word ‘Terry’ was left out in the second sentence. Teachers may find it helpful to the student if some notation (i.e., circle, underscore, italics) were used to point out the word/words to be omitted in the combining process. Another means to accomplish this result would be to underscore the part of the base sentence which will be transformed.

For example: Terry kicked the door off of the hinges.

The line indicates that ‘Terry’ is not to be used in the combining process. Another example of the -ing can read as follows:

1. The chunky football player pounced on the loose ball. (ing) (,)
2. The chunky football player jumped to his feet, and was quickly tackled.
3. Pouncing on the loose ball, the chunky football player jumped to his feet, and was quickly tackled.
Note that a comma is used before the conjunction and. This is standard practice and should be covered at the outset, otherwise it will be necessary to insert the rule.

The with rule does two things in these sentences dependent upon the sentence it follows. Look at these examples:.

1) She was an intelligent student.

2) She received good grades. (With)

3) She was an intelligent student with good grades.

Note that the words ‘she’ and ‘received’ are omitted. Again notation may be included to advise the student to omit those particular words. Here is another example of how with can be used:

1) His feet were implanted in the mud. (With)

2) He found it was impossible to catch the frog.

3) With his feet implanted in the mud, he found it was impossible to catch the frog.

Here, with is at the beginning of the sentence and the form of be (were) is omitted because it is not needed.

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Day One: Objective Students should be able to combine a noun and verb phrase to create a sentence.

Materials: blackboard, chalk, eraser, composition paper, pens

Procedure: The teacher provides the student with noun phrases and verb phrases. The student is taught to combine both phrases to create a complete sentence. This activity should be a group exercise.

Example: The teacher should construct 15-20 examples like the following. The students should be able to complete the assignment after the lOth example.

Who or What What happened?
1. Tony fixed the tire = complete sentence
2. The tall basketball player + dunked the ball = complete sentence
The teacher must specify a rule is to be used to join the phrases together. A means to convey this idea would be to give them a basic math problem where they add two numbers to form a greater number. The rule is dictated by the size which indicates the operation. Similarly the + can be used as a rule to have students add the two phrases.

Rationale: The students should draw an analogy between the precision of math and the precision required in the combining operation. This exercise should facilitate the development of basic understandings essential for later use of this technique.

Reinforcement: A homework assignment can be a means of reinforcing this basic operation. Also, it may be helpful to make signs which forces students to distinguish the who or what’s from the what happened’s. Another student can be the rule and another the output or complete sentence. This activity should stress the concept of adding to form synthesis.

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Day Two: Objective Student should be able to join compound subjects.

Materials: blackboard, chalk, eraser, paper and pens

Procedure: Students should be given a list of words that can be combined to make new words. The teacher should point out the fact that these words can stand alone and still be considered as words. Once students recognize these new words as compound words, the teacher constructs sentences which have the same verb phrases but different subjects. Students should also be aware of the ways of joining together subjects. (and) This joining word serves as the rule.

Example: John hit the ball. (and)

____Mary hit the ball. (+ rule)

Result: John and Mary hit the ball.

Rationale: This operation should serve as a means of exposing students to the possibility of sentence manipulation. Students should be able to recognize verb phrases which describe the same actions yet contain different subjects.

Reinforcement: Homework consisting of similar examples or/and worksheets which contain these type of combining operations. Students can role play a sentence where different students commit the same action to enable students to see that a more concise description of the action would include a joining word and one sentence.

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Day Three: Objective Students should be able to write sentences containing compound predicates.

Materials: blackboard, chalk, eraser, paper and pens

Procedure: Students should be given examples of sentences which consist of the same subjects yet different verb phrases. Their task is to combine the sentences and retain the subject.

Example: 1) The fox jumped over the fence. (and)

____2) The fox raided the chicken coop. (+)

____3) The fox jumped over the fence and raided the chicken coop.

Rationale: Hopefully students will see that once the verb phrase is the part of the sentence to be combined, they will be able to spot sentences to be combined in their writing which may contain exact subjects but different predicates. Also, this operation should familiarize them with the use of the rule and the combining technique.

Reinforcement: Homework, or in class worksheet which contains this type of operation. The activity described in the previous lesson could serve to illustrate that one sentence and a joining word could be a concise way of expressing a thought.

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Day Four: Objective Students should be able to combine two sentences.

Materials: blackboard, chalk, eraser, pen, paper, oak tag and magic markers

Procedure: The teacher makes posters of oak tag which contain sentences to be combined. Also the teachers makes three separate posters which contain the conjunctions and, but and or. The teacher provides the class with two signs which contain the sentences to be combined along with access to the three conjunction posters. Students should be able to combine the sentences using the appropriate conjunction. At this point the teacher may want to introduce or insert the comma as a punctuation mark which should precede the conjunction in the sentence to be combined. Examples of this operation can be demonstrated on the board and similar exercises can be worked out as a group activity.

Ex. Red Marker: John likes chocolate. (conjunction)

____He eats it all the time. (+)

Conjunctions Blue marker, including punctuation mark

Result: John likes chocolate, and he eats it all the time.

Rationale: Students should receive a gradual bit of information each day. They should become aware of the lengths of words which can be combined as well as the words which can be employed to complete the process as well as specific structural clues.

Reinforcement: Activity described above is helpful and worksheet and homework assignment which involve the operation.

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Day Five: Objective—The student should be able to combine noun phrases and verb phrases as well as sentences, given the rules.

Materials: chalk, erasers, blackboard, paper and pens

Procedure: This lesson will consist of having students combine noun and verb phrases as well as sentences. The teacher may allow students to construct sentences or/and phrases to be combined. The class can be divided and each group will send a representative to the board. The teacher writes two phrases and the rule. The team which completes the task first is awarded a point. The same procedure can be used with sentences.

Rationale: This is an evaluative lesson as well as a means of reinforcement. The teacher should be able to observe the effectiveness of instruction or spot weaknesses in students’ grasp of combining operation.

Reinforcement: Teacher should help students who have particular difficulties. It may be necessary to have a student who understands the technique tutor a student who needs assistance.


Additions: and furthermore
also in addition
for example moreover
for instance
Parallels: as similarly
just as too
Contrasts: alternatively on the other hand
although not
but rather than
by contrast though
despite unless
however while
in spite of yet
Logic: because go
before then
consequently therefore
for thus
if until
in conclusion when
since where
if . . . then since . . . therefore
so . . . that such . . . that

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O’Hare, Frank, 1971, Sentence-Combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar Instruction. NC TE

Chomsky, N., 1957, Syntactic Structures. The Hague:Mouton Publishers.

Lyons, J., 1977, Chomsky. The Harvester Press Limited: Publisher John Spiers

Trangott, E. C., 1972, A History of English Syntax, A Transformational Approach to the History of English Sentence Structure:. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Suggested Reading:
Adventures for Readers Book I, by Elizabeth C. O’Daly and Egbert W. Nieman. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1958)

Vanguard, by Robert C. Pooley, Virginia Belle Lowers, Frances Magdanz, and Olive S. Niles (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foreman and Co., 1967)

Perspectives, by Robert C. Pooley, Alfred H. Gromman, Francis Magdanz, Elsie Katlejohn, and Olive S. Niles (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman and Co., 1963)

Reflections On A Gift Of Watermelon Pickle, And Other Modern Verse, by Stephen Dunning, Edward Lueders, and Hugh Smith (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foreman and Co., 1966)

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