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Integrating Printmaking and Literature: A high school art curriculum

Joan Zamore

Contents of Curriculum Unit 88.04.05:

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My primary involvement is the role of being an artist. I am also a teacher in the secondary schools where I teach the fine arts. The process of printmaking is what I have been doing for the past twelve years. I believe that we teach best what we do best. Because much of my own work is either motivated or inspired by the use of poetry or literature, I have decided to design a high school curriculum around the integration of literature, poetry, and printmaking. In it we will integrate techniques in printmaking with readings in poetry and literature. There has always been a close affinity between prints and the written word which is evident by the collaboration between printmakers and writers. The resulting books and folios are strikingly handsome. This new popularity has helped prompt my choice of subject as well. There are objectives I wish to achieve In this unit. Some of these are carried over from my days as a student in the High School of Music and Art. One of these is an atmosphere promoting self expression. In the late fifties, when I attended the school the priorities were to be daring, different, and expressive of ourselves. Even though few traditional skills were learned, that sense of freedom remained alive for many years. I hope to keep alive a similar freedom In this unit. By opening up all the senses through the sounds and imagery of poetry and literature, I hope the student can be motivated this way to explore his own responses by means of techniques In printmaking. Sometimes certain processes are combined equivocally with particular writings. We will see how this occurs through the development of the curriculum. One art, I suspect, will feed the other, along with demonstrations and a carefully selected assortment of readings each week, a blossoming and ease at uniting both art and literature will occur. Through the effort of integrating the two arts, the senses will be nourished doubly and twice as much learning will occur. A goal which is important as well is a concern with the eloquence of words to elicit responses. Literature is to be held as a muse for the art students as well as to be treasured for its own merit. Hopefully such appreciation will come through. With the help of phrases and words, I hope a sense of meter and rhythm will be able to develop in the students. Development of musical responses can be another objective. These are wide and valuable objectives to achieve. Perhaps the most important ones are about making art. This is the active part of the artistic expression which develops intuitive response, Appreciating, learning, and doing are goals to achieve.

The physical layout of the art room needs to function as an integral part of the curriculum. It has to have an open and unencumbered quality. In one corner are the printing inks, brushes, and rollers. In another closet are various and assorted papers which lend themselves to printing. At the sink we are stocked with plenty of empty cans, sponges and paper towels. Newspapers are needed to line the tables with when printing. The tables themselves need not be grouped but are better when separated from each other so as to accommodate two or three students at a time. Little work stations can be set up at each four foot table. This will include a 20” x 20” piece of plexiglass at each station, also rollers, tubes of water soluble printing ink and assorted corrugated papers and styrofoam trays for printing.

The plan for structuring the unit will be as follows. The classes will consist of two hourly meetings each week so as to keep a semblance of continuity. The student may choose this as his “choice” art class. This means that it will meet twice as long as a regular art class. There will be a selection of xeroxed readings given out every other week. The students will have a week to review them before they are asked to pick out a reading which they can read aloud to the class. Poems and short stories will be included in the readings. The short stories will be found in a text called, Norton Anthology of Short Fiction, published by W.W. Norton and Company, while the poetry will be found in the text, To Read Poetry, by Donald Hall, published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Only a segment of the short stories will be read to the class.

An important strategy is to elicit responses from the student about the literature. These responses are going to then be further translated into the art. How is this to be done? The readings from the books will be broken into seven themes. The themes shall be: Children’s Fantasy, Life and Death, Nature Animals, People and Places, Comedy and Satire, Sports, Religion, and Patriotism. The themes cover a broad span and so will the styles in which they are written. They will offer themselves to diverse interpretations. For example, in the first theme concerning death and life, there are various interpretations of death and life. The poem by William Carlos Williams called “Spring and All” suggests the power of nature and rebirth, while the poem “Home Burial” by Robert Frost is a deeply moving encounter between a man (poet?) and his wife upon the death of their infant and their misunderstandings—On the other hand, Emily Dickenson internalizes her impressions of what she supposes death to be in “When I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died.” The power of suggesting death through sound and imagery is powerful here. In Faulkner’s story titled “Barn Burning” a young boy breaks from his father’s destructive ways. In a sense he confirms life in opposition to his unfeeling father. Because these readings offer diverse interpretations, the students can bring their own experiences to them. Their own bias is important. Because there are twelve readings in each theme, there is a better opportunity for the class to make their responses. The student may respond to Frost’s poem which is a tense dialogue and an inner dialogue. His choice will indicate his point of view of death. His mental interpretation will aid Nm in rendering the artistic responses. If he recognizes his feelings about death, he learns about himself and he grows intuitively. Later I will discuss how this response will be applied to printmaking techniques. Also in using printmaking and familiarizing himself to repeating them he will grow more comfortable as the semester progresses. When the challenge of each theme confronts him, he will ask himself what piece of literature be responds to and why? For example, does he respond to the experience, to the setting, or to the mood? Does he respond to the rhythm or to the sounds? Making the art from these responses will be discussed later.

The demonstrations provide another aspect of the unit. They will be offered during the first five weeks of the unit so as to guide the students into possible approaches of printmaking. They will be demonstrated at the second meeting of each week. By this time the readings will have been introduced and the demonstrations will offer an opportunity for the students to try them out. Their adaption to the techniques will be very individual. Certain techniques will appeal to certain students. The five demonstrations of relief methods in printing are:

4. THE MONOTYPE (the painterly print)


A. Objectives
____1. How to make a cut out print
____2. How to print the cut out
____3. How to print the negative
____4. How to print the positive
B. Materials
____printing inks, water soluble
____matte medium
____plexiglass plate
____styrofoam, other cut out materials
____paper towels
____cutting tools
____water jars and sponges
C. Process

1. Set up for inking

At first we will talk about the set up for printmaking. Working with clean implements is important. Rollers. plexiglass, styrofoam plates, etc. are needed. We roll a small amount of ink out on the plexiglass. We add some thickening agent for better consistency.

2. Cutting a print

We start by cutting out a shape. This is done with a matting knife directly into styrofoam. The image may be drawn beforehand into the styrofoam. We cut out the shape carefully so as not to destroy the surrounding styrofoam. This is a chance to make the negative print. We can push out the cut outs and put them back when we have finished printing the shapes. This is demonstrated. Then we incise some line into the styrofoam with a sharp tool for detail. A nail or blade may be used for this purpose.

3. Printing a positive shape

This is done by simply pushing out the shape you desire to print, rolling the color out onto the plexiglass. Then, roll the color on the cut out shape. In order to transfer the image, turn it over, ink side down on the paper and with a clean roller press down until the ink has been transferred to the paper. This process is observed by the class. Sometimes, if the image isn’t transferred properly, it is necessary to ink the piece again and print it again.

4. Printing a negative shape

Push out all the shapes from the styrofoam plate. Again, check the edges of the styrofoam so they are not ragged or sloppy. Roll ink carefully over the entire surface of styrofoam, turn it over onto paper, and with a clean roller, press down on the styrofoam so that the negative print is made. Instead of printing all the shapes together, it is possible to cut out the negative shapes from their fixed pattern. This allows greater freedom in printing them individually. Questions and suggestions from students are welcomed.

After the demonstration, the students can cut out different shapes and print them. They can interchange their shapes with each other. They learn the correct way to print by repeating the process many times. They will learn variations of their own by exploring the technique again and again. They will familiarize themselves with certain variables: the correct amount of ink that is good to use, the amount of pressure that will allow them to get the image properly printed, the kind of space that they need for different compositions. Another matter to stress is good work habits. This includes keeping marks off the paper while printing and working. Also, avoiding over-inking, washing up the materials carefully, and wiping the plexiglass until there is no ink on it. Since we will be using water soluble ink there is no need to use solvents.

After the basic techniques are learned, more artistic and meaningful decision making can take place. Then the relationship of working with new tools becomes comfortable and more natural work rhythms start occurring.


A. Objective
____1. How to engrave a drawing into styrofoam?
____2. What are the characteristics of the drawn image?
____3. Compare the linear prints to the cut outs.
____4. Reversing the image.
____5. Adapting the visual image to the printed word.
As in the earlier demonstration, there is a concern for craftsmanship and good work habits. The manner used to incise the line is demonstrated. Some tools are more successful than others to get an Incised line. The angle at which you hold the tool facilitates the drawing.

B. Materials

____cutting tools, nails, blades, wires
____materials to cut into (styrofoam)
____printing inks
____paper towels
____sponges and rollers
C. Process of engraving The demonstration begins by cutting a line into a piece of styrofoam. Then make a mark into the styrofoam. Different tools make different lines. Explore different line qualities.

D. Printing the drawing

____1. Roll ink over drawing
____2. Place the paper over a moderately inked surface
____3. With a dry roller, press back of paper
____4. Peel off paper to see print
____5. Hang up print to dry or lay flat E. Clean up


A. Objectives
____1. How to prepare the objects and textures for printing (finishing with matte medium)
____2. How to add and combine several techniques in one design 3. Accepting the natural irregularity of the printed image
B. Materials
____corrugated cardboard
____matte medium
____printing ink and matte base
____newspaper and paper towels
____printing ink, plexiglass, styrofoam, and other cutting tools
C. Process—Preparing the found items or textured
____1. Coating the corrugated cut out shapes with matte medium by painting it on front and back
____2. Waiting for the medium to dry before printing (follow printing directions in Demonstration 2)

4th DEMONSTRATION—THE MONOTYPE (the painterly print

A. Objectives in teaching
____1. How to introduce a new printing painting technique.
____2. How to make multiples by changing the print gradually.
B. Materials
____tubes of printing ink
____matte medium for mixing inks
____soft rags, paper towels, rollers
____sheet of plexiglass for each student
____individual palettes or styrofoam trays
C. Process
____1. Mixing inks—we need to achieve the proper consistency for the ink so it will facilitate painting and then printing. It should be the consistency of sour cream.
____2. Painting the image. With one color and a brush or soft rag we can paint directly onto the plexiglass (the additional approach). With an inked roller we can cover the plexiglass in one color. Then we can remove the ink in some area with a rag.
____3. Some do’s and don’ts
________Be careful to wipe out areas entirely before repainting in the same area.
________It is preferable to use one color at first so that the processes of additive and subtractive approach are emphasized.
________Rags are good substitutes for brushes.
________The time element is important. Work fast, you don’t want the paint to dry.
____4. Printing the image. When the image is satisfactorily completed, we place the paper over the painted plexi (the paper can be dampened if it is heavy) Also, 100% rag paper is best, undampened rice paper is good. With a clean roller lightly apply pressure against the back of the paper, the image will be transferred that way.


A. Objectives
____1. To incorporate this technique with printmaking methods.
____2. To increase the ways to use space for the print.
B. Materials scissors, rulers, pencils bristol board matting knives
C. Explanation of process. This is a non printmaking demonstration. It needs additional explanation to be handed out. (Page 96) Three folding paper methods will be demonstrated. During the demo we will practice the paper folding, and not add printmaking techniques until each student has done a folding technique. Later, techniques of folding and printmaking will be integrated.

(figure available in print form)
The next effort is to adapt the readings for a piece of visual art. Until this point, we have made an effort to design both lessons and readings as a basis of deriving appropriate responses from the students. The themes were chosen by reviewing the books carefully and selecting which were the most prevalent subjects. Donald Hall, for example, in his eagerness to spread his own enthusiasm, makes a selection of the best poetry that will appeal to young people. The same with the short fiction anthology. The first group of readings are handed out. The students are instructed to choose one reading which they will read aloud and then use for their print. Reading the literature aloud is the first step in eliciting responses from the students about meaning and sounds. How do they first respond? Do they respond to the experience, to the setting, or to the mood? In the first group of readings, Kipling’s Just So Stories, the animals and their relationships are important. In the story by Kipling called, How the Camel Got His Hump, there are four animals, an ox, a dog, a horse, and a camel. They are concerned about the camel’s laziness. Each one can be described through their relationship with the other. They can also be interpreted through color and shape. In the first group of writings, keeping the methods simple along with the writings is important. Learning techniques in printmaklng allow emphasis to be placed on the job of integrating both literature and art.

Making the art requires other awareness. Another means of interpreting literature into art is by way of sound. When the poems are read aloud, the students become acquainted with the sounds of the words. Their response is subconscious and they begin to relate to the written work that way. The artwork is often based on responses that the sounds evoke. The readings are chosen with regard to appealing to all the senses. This includes the visual capacity for sight, the hearing capacity for sound, the sense of smell and the sense of touch. Let us examine some poems where the words are used to elicit sensory responses. William Carlos Williams has a great capacity to elicit visual responses through sound. In the poem, so much depends . . . Williams emphasizes the importance of the visual response in the first line of the poem. This line insists on the importance of what is to follow. To isolate the following three lines—by pass and spaces—is to emphasize the singularity of the individual units and draw closer attention to the redness of the wheelbarrow, to the wetness of the rain, to the whiteness of the chickens. The poem’s arrangement releases sounds which grant us a pleasure in sight, in seeing red, rain, and white. Then too, the sounds give pleasure to the mouth. The “w” sounds against the hard consonant sounds make the mouth feel like a musical instrument when saying, wheel barrow, “rain water”, and “white chickens”.

Other poems by Williams which evoke the senses include Nantucket and this is just to say both in the Hall volume. The Snow Man by Wallace Stevens is about sound and sight. Sea Rose by Hilda Doolittle is about touch and smell. Combining the “pop ups with these poems could be useful to emphasize the images.

Finally, let’s compare two narrative prose poems for their interpretations of death. We will then see how differently they lend themselves to artistic interpretation. One is called, “A Dead Seal Near McClure’s Beach,” by Robert Bly. This is a real experience. It Is about the poet’s encounter with a seal who is struggling for life and finally succumbing to death. The other poem by Russell Edson is, “Bringing a Dead Man Back to Life.” It has the macabre about it and the unreal. In terms of form, the first poem is told in two paragraphs to designate two single days in time. The second one is broken by phrases which seem disjointed. In Bly’s poem, the theme of death Is conveyed through natural description; the seal lies in his natural environment on the beach and his death is a gradual return to the world he knows. Bly uses prose for the details of the world, yet like a poem he leaps across spaces of thought to see inside things. In Russell Edson’s poem, he reveals the most fearsome elements about death. The dead man is anything but in his element. He is flounced around at a country fair or a round of night parties. He is not relating to a real life environment. He is a skeleton wearing society’s tragic mask. The poets convey two different interpretations. How can we interpret the two poems in regard to space? The Bly poem has a good deal of order and balance, while the “Dead Man” is erratic and unbalanced. Working with the whole space of the paper gives a different sense of order than concentrating the image to the center. Other means of conveying order are through variations of light and dark. Less contrast affords less drama. Changes In size can give more movement and depth.

The element of time allotted to each theme is two weeks. At first, with the newness of printmaking techniques, the receptive adaptation to the written material may be slow. Primary colors are used. Black is not introduced. Growth in the technical abilities is very individual. Sometimes the creative drive to interpret literature is stronger than the skill will allow, but the irregularity of the print can sometimes enhance the end result.

The plan to divide the semester into seven themes is purposeful. It allows enough time for the students to digest the readings and translate them into art. It allows them the opportunity to work with the techniques until a complete print is made or until two versions are complete. They must read all the readings before they make their choices. The outline of themes and readings follow:

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Texts—Alice In Wonderland by Louis Carroll
Scholastic Book Services, N.Y.C.
Just So Stories by Rudyard Kipling
Mcmillan London Ltd.
Wynken, Blynken and Nod by Eugene Field
Hastings House Publishers
How the Camel Got his

  Hump 15 Rudyard Kipling
The Sing Song of old Man

  Kangaroo 79 Rudyard Kipling
The Elephant’s Child 59 Rudyard Kipling
How the Leopard Got his

  Spots 42 Rudyard Kipling
Wynken, Blynken &

  Nod Eugene Field
Down the Rabbitt Hole 5 Lewis Carroll
A Pool of Tears 16 Lewis Carroll
A Mad tea-Party 78 Lewis Carroll
The Mock Turtle’s Story 107 Lewis Carroll




Spring and all 243 William Carlos Williams
  The Dead Seal Near

McClure’s Beach 99 Robert Bly
Home Burial 140 Robert Frost
Bringing a Dead Man

Back to Life 200 Russell Edson
  I heard a Fly buzz

When I died 232 Emily Dickenson
Proust’s Madeleine 56 Kenneth Rexroth
Merlin 347 Geoffrey Hill
We Real Cool 295 Gwendolyn Brooks
Spring and Fall 226 Gerard Hopkins
To an Athlete dying Young 227 A. E. Houseman
The pasture 140 Robert Frost

Barn Burning 439 William Faulkner
Bliss 964 Katherine Mansfield
Rocking Horse Winner 869D.H. Lawrence

Nantucket 27 William Carlos Williams
Above Pate Valley Gay Snyder

Birches Robert Frost

  After Apple Picking 143 Robert Frost
Sea Rose 247 H.D.
The Snow Man 239 Wallace Stevens
The Rain 312 Robert Creeley
Reapers 261 Jean Toomer
Voyages 265 Hart Crane
October 306 Denise Levertov
Paring the Apple 323 Charles Tomlinson

Kew Gardens 1519 Virginia Woolf
Hills like White Elephants641 Ernest Hemingway

Chicago 237 Carl Sandburg
That is just to say 243 William Carlos Williams
Marriage 343 Gregory Corso
A man writes to a part of Himself 312 Robert Bly
For My Mother;

  Genevieve Jules Creeley 313 Robert Creeley
In the Suburbs 309 Louis Simpson
Careers 353 Imamu Ameri Barak
Virgo Descending 356 Charles Wright
Poem 358 Tom Clark
Mr. Bleaney 302 Philip Larkin
Aubade 303 Philip Larkin
The River Merchant’s Wife,

  A letter 245 Ezra Pound
Short Fiction

Sonny’s Blues 16 James Baldwin
Bartleby the Scrivener 1031 Herman Melville

The Flower fed Buffalos 238 Vachel Lindsay
The owl 238 Edward Thomas
The Groundhog 270 Edward Eberhart
The Bear 325 Galway Kinnell
The Heaven of Animals 304 James Dickey
The Fish 282 Elizabeth Bishop
The Wild Geese 354 Wendell Berry
The first Dags 329 James Wright
Lobsters in the Window 322 W.D. Snodgrass
Still, Citizen Sparrow 301 Richard Wilbug
Short Fiction

The Bear 454 William Faulkner
Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad
In a prominent Bar

  in Secaucus One Day 334X.J. Kennedy
On the debt my mother

Owed to Sears Roebuck 332 Edward Dorn
April Inventory 321 W. D. Snodgrass
Salami 329 Philip Levine
next to of course god, america 260 e. e. Cummings
The Emperor of Ice-

  Cream 239 Wallace Stevens
The Love Song of J.

  Alfred Prufrock 251 T. S. Eliot
Why I am not a Painter 320 Frank O’Hara
Counting the Mad 310 Donald Justice
Walt Whitman at Bear Mountain 309 Louis Simpson
The Dover Bitch; A criticism of Life 305 Anthony Hecht
Short Fiction

Rape Fantasies 8 Margaret Atwood
The Owl Who was God xxvi James Thurber

A Deserter 260 Charles Reznikoff
Poem, or beauty hurts 259 e.e. Cummings
Mr. Vinal America 316 Allen Ginsberg
Poems for Black Re-location Centers 352 Etheridge Knight
Watergate 353 Imamu Amiri Baraka
To an Athlete dying Young227 A. E Houseman
Dulce et Decorum Est 258 Wilfred Owen
On the Move 333 Thom Gunn
Ode to the Confederate Dead617 Allen Tate
The Man He Killed 224 Thomas Hardy
Short Fiction

Young Goodman Brown 617 Nathaniel Hawthorne
Coach 1298 Mary Robison

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UNIT: THE INTEGRATION OF PRINTMAKING AND LITERATURE The following lesson plans are aimed as a series in the unit. They suggest a pattern of approach for which the remainder of the unit will follow.

LESSON I time: one hour



DEMONSTRATION: Printing with Relief Cut-Outs 25 minutes

A. Materials
____Printing inks, water soluble
____matte medium
____plexiglass plate
____styrofoam, other materials for cut outs
____paper toweling
____cutting tools
____water jars and sponges
____1. Inking
________We roll a small amount of ink out on the plexiglass. We add some thickening agent for better consistency.
2. Cutting a print
________We cut out a shape from the styrofoam with a matting knife.
________Afterwards, we cut out the shape carefully so as not to disturb the surrounding styrofoam. We can draw incised lines into the styrofoam with a nail or other tool.
3. Printing a positive shape
(figure available in print form)
Push out the shape you want to print,roll out the color on the plexiglass. Then, roll the color onto the cut out. In order transfer the image, turn it over, inked side down, onto the paper and with a clean roller press down until the ink has been transferred onto the paper. This is demonstrated.

4. Printing a negative shape
(figure available in print form)
Push out all the shapes from the styrofoam plate. Again, check the edges of the styrofoam so they are not ragged. Roll ink carefully over the entire surface of the styrofoam, turn it onto .e clean paper, and with a roller press down on the styrofoam so that the negative print is made. Instead of printing all the negative space it is possible to cut the negative shapes from their fixed patterns. This allows freedom to work.

C. Practicing the process—class participation 15 minutes
____1. making new cut outs
____2. repeating the cutting methods in styrofoam.
____3. Inking the styrofoam properly.
____4. Using the correct pressure for printing.
____5. Working cleanly and efficiently
____6. Finding a rhythm in printing.
D. Cleaning up
____1. Washing styrofoam cut outs
____2. Cleaning rollers and plexiglass
____3. cleaning brushes with soap
____4. hanging work out to dry 10 minutes he final part of LESSON I will be devoted to handing out Readings n CHILDREN’S FANTASY. Refer to pages 9 and 10 in this curriculum.
ASSIGNMENT: Read all selections of theme 1. Choose one to read in lass aloud tomorrow. You will make a print for this afterwards.

LESSON II time; one hour


OBJECTIVES: How to convey sounds and meanings into shapes and colors?

A. Strategies
____1. We read the poem or Kipling fable aloud in class. 20 min.
____2. How to cut an appropriate shape for the reading?
B. Questions
____1. What kinds of sounds do we hear? Sad? Happy?
____2. What is the dialogue between the animals?
____3. what shape can you use for the dog? the horse? the ox & the camel? (How the camel got his Hump?)
____4. What kinds of shapes can we use for the “Mad Tea Party” in “Alice”? What colors? Are they real? Unreal?
C. Repeat the steps in lesson I. Hand out styrofoam and cutting tools for the class. 25 min.
____1. Cutting relief prints & cut outs.
____2. Inking and printing.
____3. Cutting and Printing several prints.of one shape.
____4. Practicing printing techniques.
D. Materials
____styrofoam and other matErials
____matting knives
____incising tools
____paper towels
____printing papers the shapes already cut out 10 min.
E. Class evaluates
________If some students started printing, we can look at those.
F. Questions
____1. Is the shape descriptive of the story or poem?
____2. Do the shapes relate to one another?
____3. Is the negative space active?
____4. Is the color well chosen?
G. Clean up. 10 min.

LESSON III time; one hour


OBJECTIVES: DEMONSTRATION 2—Linear Drawing into Styrofoam (the second demonstration will take place. It will be condensed into ten minutes to allow the class time to finish the work begun.)

A. Materials
____printing inks, water soluble and similar list to Lesson II.
B. Process—Incising the line
________Using a tool to inscribe a drawing. This is demonstrated. We cut a pattern or texture into the styrofoam. If we want to suggest fur or grass, we add the drawing to the shapes cut last week.
C. Printing the drawing
____1. Roll the ink over the line drawing
____2. Place `the paper over the inked surface.
____3. with a dry roller, press back of paper.
____4. Peel off paper to see completed image.
____5. Hang to dry.
D. Questions
____What kind of detailed line will you add ?
____Where will you place the shapes on the paper? Will they overlap? Will they be separated by a space.?
E. Class completes prints 35 min.
F. Clean up and putting work up. 10 min.

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I. Bibliography for Teachers

Berger, John. About Looking. New York: (1st American Ed.), Pantheo Books, 1980.

Steiner, Wendy. Images & Code, Ernest H. Gombrich. Ann Arbor Michigan: Horace H. Rackham School of Grad. Studies, 1981.

Williams, William Carlos. Imaginations. New York: New Directions, 1970.

II. Reading List for Students:

Cassill, R.V. Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York: Norton & Company, 3rd edition.

Hall, Donald, To Read Poetry. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1983.

Carroll, Lewis. Alice in Wonderland. New York: Scholastic Book Services.

Kipling, Rudyard. Just So Stories. London: Macmillan, Ltd., 1980.

Field, Eugene. Wynken Blynken & Nod. New York: Hastings House.

III. Materials for Classroom Use:

Gauguin, Paul. Noa, Noa, Voyages to Tahiti. London: Reynal & Co.

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