Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

A Conceptual Model for Teaching Community Development

Cynthia McDaniels

Contents of Curriculum Unit 89.01.07:

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The local school systems have traditionally been responsible to their respective communities. Educational facilities ranging from the small neighborhood schools to complex institutions of higher education have attempted to serve the needs of their communities in various ways. Educational governance, policy formulation, curricula, all recognize the importance of their community in the decision-making process. Likewise, the community is mindful of the role that the academic system can play in the community affairs and often utilizes the school resources. Mutual accountability, acceptance of each others boundaries, though they are often blurred, clearly confirm that the two institutions have a special and viable partnership.

Too often the educational and community partnership is often underdeveloped and tenuous. In most cases, the schools are left alone to pursue their academic efforts, and the community is viewed as a nebulous body that does not interfere with the schools except when involved in communal activities, such as using the school premises for entertainment purposes, and relying on the expertise of school personnel on specific issues and topics.

A community can have a profound effect on the students. It can address the affective needs of students, such as values, attitudes, and feelings which are equally as important in the overall development of the student. If students understand their community, they are in a better position to develop positive inclinations toward their environment. It is also more likely that students will be motivated to adopt an action-oriented stance in community matters.

The positive aspects of the community can play a very active role in the schools, and in this era of substance abuse moral neutrality, and individualism, students need as much support as possible. Moreover, in communities that have negative role models and members whose behavior is not desirable by community standards, perhaps the positive elements of the school and the community can align themselves to ameliorate and undermine those counter-productive forces, individuals, and practices, that distract students, and lower the community morale.

The organizing strategies used in this unit are:

1. Conceptual-inquiry teaching-learning model.
2. Interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional approaches.
3. Academic and field-experience strategies.
Thinking conceptually is important in the learning process. Categorizing is automatically part of the mental process involved in intellectual development. Research and observation reveal that young children are able to distinguish between phenomena based on contrasting attributes. Even when the names of the concepts are not known, students may know the characteristics of the concept. With the mind predisposed to grouping and categorizing, concept development can be taught and learned efficiently and systematically.

Concept teaching provides a chance to analyze the students’ thinking process and to help develop more effective learning strategies that can increase the ability to conceptualize and retain factual knowledge. This approach utilizes a variety of activities and materials of varying complexity. Concept teaching can be applied to any discipline, but is especially suited for certain subjects that allow for different interpretations and that do not easily lend themselves to closure benefit from concept-learning strategies, in that related concepts are linked together to present a unified “whole”, thus allowing relationships and associations to be clearly placed in perspective. Also, the fact that concepts transcends subject compartments, allow for multi-dimensional conceptualization from different disciplines.

An interdisciplinary approach is useful in unifying disciplines that are germane in examining community dynamics. Humanities, for instance, focus on the quality of life, science alerts community members to issues ranging from immunization requirements to the awareness of chemicals used in industrial technology. Mathematics is fundamental in local tax computations, measuring neighborhood distances, and scale drawings. History provides the basis for integrating the time elements and explaining how communities evolved.

The development of an integrative approach should take place also between processes. When students acquire knowledge about their community, and couple it with action-related behavior, a healthy and productive connection can result, which if properly channeled, can pay valuable dividends to the student and community at large. Through site visits, interviews with members of the community and other field activities, students will gain experience in managing situations that they repeatedly encounter in life. The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory comprehensively work with field-based educational projects succinctly summarizes the importance of the community in contributing to character development value clarification.

“Students’ interaction with adults in various community settings gives them a chance to reassess what they know about themselves, redefine future goals accordingly and develop the flexibility necessary to cope with the fact that not only are they entering a rapidly changing world but their self-concepts and goals will be changing as they grow and mature.

The most appropriate placement of a unit on community is in social studies course. The predominance of concepts such as ethnicity, acculturation, group behavior, history, clearly fall within the social science domain, in which social studies is a part of on the middle school level.

Geography, both cultural and physical are an integral part of social studies. Students acquire map-reading and other location skills, through understanding of geographical concepts such as parallels of latitude, meridians of longitude. Learning how to use map legions and calculating time in different time zones are practical skills that are useful in social studies and science. Geography learning aids, especially atlases allow students to learn where places are located and their relationship to other places.

The overall aim of this unit is to examine the idea of community using a concept teaching strategy. The three lessons also include multidisciplinary and field experience components.

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Primary Concept: Community
Secondary Concepts: History, Geography, Problem Solving
Generalization: Students should understand the characteristics of their community in order to solve some of the community-based problems
Curriculum Objectives: 1) Define community; 2) analyze community Variables; 3) Develop an appreciation for the community; 4) Actively participate in working towards solving a community problem; 5) Identify specific community locations; 6) Improve map skills; 7) Apply historical concepts to understand community development; 8) Increase vocabulary of community related terminology; 9) Improve critical thinking skills; 10) Improve reading comprehension
Instructional Modalities: Visual, audio, physical Resources: Maps, community site, local newspaper

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The first part of the lesson explores the idea of the community by analyzing attributes which are associated with the community. Through developmental ,deductive, and inductive activities, students will continually discern attributes that are closely linked with a community from those which are not. The purpose of this lesson and accompanying strategies is to induce students to broaden their conceptual framework in which information is processed through targeted questions designed to elicit responses.

Behavioral objectives: All students will be able to:

a. define the term ‘community’

b. identify specific features of a community

c. distinguish community from other related terms

d. analyze leadership characteristics

e. design a brochure to promote their community

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1. What is a community? Students will write a brief definition of community.
2. Why are there different interpretations of community? Teacher selects individual students to read and explain their responses. As students submit their different perceptions, teacher extracts the key element and writes them on the blackboard.
3. In what ways are the ideas related? Invariably the students responses will include related features that are associated with a community. Teacher will lead a discussion of why some attributes are closely aligned with the idea of community and how other characteristics are related. Specific terms for analysis should include neighborhood, locality, region, section, group, land, boundary, space, community.
4. How does your definition of community differ from the dictionary description? Students will use reference sources to define community and similarities.
5. What are the boundaries of your community? Students will identify the community parameters by listing specific streets, landmarks and other indicators. Next, students will draw a map of their community. Maps can be very broad or can include very detailed areas in the community.
6. In addition to physical boundaries, what are other factors that determine the make-up of the community? Students will write an essay vividly describing their community. The description should include physical structures, demographic composition, occupations, industrial base, social-economic stratum, activities, sounds, and other details that are an integral part of the community.
7. Who determines directions, formulates policy, and makes decisions in your community? Students’ responses will vary but the idea of a coterie or cadre of individuals who derive their status through official positions or informally through reputations or actions will surface, thus leading to the concept of leadership.
8. Who are the community leaders and what are their occupations? Specific individuals and their positions should be identified.
9. What are leadership traits that community leaders exhibit? Teacher will list student responses on the board. The commonalities will be analyzed and students will develop a typology of leadership characteristics involving undesirable traits that are characteristic of some leaders in the community. Comparisons between positive role models such as an active clergyman on the one hand, and a drug dealer on the other should be discussed to help students clarify their understanding of the individuals that impact on the community. Morality, ethics, propriety, materialism, power are some of the concepts that should be highlighted in the discussion.
10. Imagine that you have been commissioned to promote community development. How would you undertake your assignment? Students will form groups and brainstorm about strategies for community development. Each member of the group will design a part of the brochure emphasizing positive features of their community, including the existing infrastructure, potential areas for improvement, and other attractive aspects of the community.
11. Select two articles from the newspaper related to positive aspects of the community and leadership. Students will explain the reasons why they selected the articles and the implications to the community.

Evaluation procedure

1. A vocabulary test will be administered using the terms used in this lesson.
2. Students will briefly explain how their community compares with others. The teacher will provide specific criteria to aid students in their written comparison.
3. Students will locate their community on an outline map of New Haven.
4. Students will assume a position on who should make decisions on community matters and how the decisions and decision-making process should function. The teacher will provide guidelines for writing position papers.
5. Class will discuss major highlights of the lesson. Insight, increased awareness of problems, ability to recognize historical issues, are some of the variables that the teacher will use in assessing the lesson.

Field-Based Experiences

1. The class will take a walk around the local area to sensitize themselves to the area. Since most of the students are local residents the excursion will focus on the significance of certain sites, the variances and similarities of residents, and behavioral patterns.
2. A bus tour of community landmarks.
3. Each student will conduct an interview with their parents to determine their opinions about what constitutes the community, who the community leaders are, and what are the most appealing aspects of the community. The teacher will assist students in developing their interview format and in interviewing.
4. If possible, students will interview a leader in the community. Students will ask open-ended questions centered around the contributions of the leader, motivating factors, and future visions.
5. Invite a leader to address the class and school to discuss the community in general and specific issues in particular.
6. From the information attained from the preceding activities, students will begin to identify about ways in which the school can become involved.
7. Plan action-oriented activities that can raise the level of awareness and involvement of school and community issues.

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The development of the American community has a convoluted history. Some communities evolved without a systematic plan, while others were the results of deliberate efforts to create structured, and at times, ideal communities.

In order to understand the make-up of the present day communities, it is imperative to know the historical antecedents. An analysis of the values, traditions, and other forces that have shaped American communities reveals that there are commonalities characteristic of all communities, as well as very specific features of particular communities.

There is clearly a conceptual framework evident in the American residential patterns. Applied concepts categorize communities along socio-economic, ethnic, racial, age, and other lines. There even exists, communities conceptualized on the basis of a mixture of concepts, designed to create ‘model’ communities, but sometimes resulting in highly skewed communities. As American continues to chart a path to development based on the proverbial American character, the role of the community in which character is nurtured, plays an even more vital role. Students need to learn more about their community in order to develop the positive attributes needed to be successful. The American community can promote an appreciation for the homogeneity and diversity, characteristic of American society.

The idea of studying the community has been an integral part of social studies. John Dewey wrote extensively on the role of the community in the educational process. Ralph Tyler (1949) stated that the community should be a source for the selection of subject matter and in the formulation of curriculum objectives. Hilda Taba (1962) developed a cyclical social studies curriculum model that begins with the local community on the lower grades and enlarges to include the global community on the high school level.

This lesson focuses on the New Haven community. There are many nationalities who have contributed in the development in New Haven. In this lesson, students will explore the development of two communities one based on ethnicity, voluntary emigration, and the other based on race and the desire to be free from enslavement.

The three phases of this lesson are designed to give student insight into the process of community development.

Major Concept: History

Secondary Concepts: Group cohesiveness, Development Curriculum


1. To understand the origins of communities.
2. To know the reasons why groups and individuals settled in the New Haven area.
3. To examine the differences and similarities of the different groups.
4. To acquire insight into the problems faced by the individuals and the group.
5. To recognize the process of community development.

Instructional Objectives:

1. To define vocabulary words.
2. To analyze the factors involved in immigration.
3. To identify key figures who contributed to the development of selected communities.
4. To locate the countries from which many New Haven immigrate from.
5. To empathize with the experiences of early settlers on an individual and group level.
6. To compare the number of immigrants from various countries.

Italians Arrived Early and Kept on Arriving

The first person of Italian descent in New Haven seems to have been a well-to-do merchant named William Diodate. Diodate came from an Italian family that had emigrated to Switzerland in the early 1600s and then on to London.

He arrived in New Haven about 1717 for on April 23 of that year his name first appears in the town records showing that a parcel of land was deeded to him. Two years later, he purchased a half acre of land at Elm and Church streets.

In January 1720, he married Sarah Dunbar and later that same year he purchased for 100 pounds a parcel of land with a house and barn on State Street.

He made his profession of faith in 1735, according to the records of the First Church, and in that year he also purchased several tracts of land on the outskirts of the community.

Diodate apparently was a broker of gold and silver for when he died in 1751, the inventory of his estate shows that he had a considerable amount of silverplate, gold and silver coin and bonds for gold and silver.

His estate also included a large library of 76 volumes, many of them theological works. One of the books was entitled “Mr. Diodate’s Annotations,” suggesting that William may have been a relative of John Diodati, a famous minister of Geneva, Switzerland, during the time of the Reformation.

It is likely that other ltalians came to New Haven from time to time during the next century, but it wasn’t until the latter years of the 19th century that Italians in large numbers began to settle in New Haven.

In 1861, the birth of Giannetto Corsa to Giovanni and Maria Corsa of 2 Chestnut St. was noted in town records and several years later the birth of Antonio DiBello, son of Lorenzo DiBello, was recorded.

In 1872, Paul Russo, who was later to become the first Italian immigrant to receive a law degree from Yale, arrived with his father, a virtuoso violin player. A year later, Anthony DeMatty established a shoemaking shop on Grand Avenue while two Italian gentlemen named Castagnetti and Caputo opened a fruit store at Grand Avenue and State Street.

At about the same time, Francesco Conforti and Vincenzo Riccio were hired by the Candee Rubber Co., becoming the first of hundreds and then thousands of Italians who found work in New Haven’s bustling factories.

Italian immigrants also found work in railroad construction. In 1885, for example, more than 500 Italians, mostly from the province of Benevento, were employed by the New Haven Railroad during construction of the New London and Boston line.

The arrival of large numbers of immigrants in the 1880s and 1890s was followed by the organization of immigrant aid organizations such as the Fratellanza, the Garibaldi, the Marineria, S. Antonio, Concordia and St. Michele societies. In 1889, the city’s first Italian parish, St. Michael’s, was established.

New Haven became such a center of Italian immigration, in fact, that in August 1900 a consular office was established on Chapel Street to assist newcomers.

Also helping the immigrants was a group of Catholic nuns, the Apostolic Sisters of the Sacred Heart. In 1906, the sisters opened a day nursery for Italian youngsters on Greene Street, and soon found that there was so much demand that another nursery was opened on Prince Street.

“It is impossible to calculate the advantage that day nurseries are to the community,” commented the New Haven Union, “and the benefit they are to the homes of the poor, especially is this true where mothers find the necessity of going out to work as to help contribute to the support of the family. Very often the mother is the only support and in such cases the nurseries really keep the home and family together.”



Find each word in the article and attempt to determine the meaning in the context in which the word is used. Compare your responses with dictionary definitions.








Discuss each point in small groups before sharing responses with the whole class.

1. What evidence supports the view that William Diodate was the first person of Italian descent to arrive in New Haven?
2. What was the purpose of immigrants organizations in the 1880’s and 1890’s?
3. What is a consular office? Why was one established in August 1900 for Italian immigrants?
4. Does the reading give a clue to the religious denominations of Italians?
5. What is meant by ‘Outskirts of the Community’?
6. Do immigrant services exist today and do they serve the same purpose as the ones founded in the 19th century?


1. Locate Italy, Switzerland and England on a map of Europe.
2. Locate Greene, Chestnut, Prince and Chapel Streets on a map of New Haven.
3. Where is the Italian community in New Haven?

City Opened Doors to Fugitive Slaves

In the years before the Civil War, New Haven became the major entry point in Connecticut for blacks fleeing slavery along the underground railroad.

Fugitives arrived in the city on ships direct from Southern ports or from New York City where they had previously landed.

One of the latter was William Grimes, a slave born in Virginia in 1784. Grimes escaped from Savannah, Ga., on the brig Casket, with the help of some Yankee sailors who left a hiding place among bales of cotton lashed to the ship’s decks.

Grimes landed in New York City, but was given a thorough fright when he ran into one of his former masters on Broadway. That encounter convinced Grimes that he would be better off in the country and, he later wrote, “The next morning, after purchasing a loaf of bread and a small piece of meat, I started on foot for New Haven. . . . every carriage or person I saw coming behind me, I fancied was in pursuit of me.”

Hitching rides as best he could with passing farmers and walking when he had to, Grimes arrived in New Haven in three days. He found work in the livery stable of a New Haven black man, Able Landson and remained there until he met Stephen Bullock, a white Southerner who had been in charge of his master’s office.

Again, he was forced to flee, this time to Southington where he went to work for a farmer. Later, Grimes returned to New Haven and worked as a utility man at Yale and as a barber.

There was in New Haven a network of blacks and whites ready to help escaped slaves. One of the leaders was the black clergyman Amos Gerry Beman, paster of the Temple Street Church. In his writings, Beman referred, sometimes cryptically, to some of the fugitives who came to New Haven to settle or who passed through on their way northward to Canada.

In January 1851, he wrote, “We had the pleasure of receiving and sending on her way an interesting passenger from the land of chains and whips by the underground railroad.”

Other New Haveners who aided the fugitive slaves were the Rev. Simeon S. J. Jocelyn, his brother Nathaniel Jocelyn, Amos Townsend, the Rev. Henry Ludlow and the Rev. Samuel W. S. Dutton.

Fugitives who arrived in New Haven often were instructed to proceed to Dutton’s home at 113 College St. and to knock a certain

way on the door to be admitted. After being given a bath and a meal, the fugitives were taken to the attic where they slept all

day before resuming their northward journey the next night.

A number of routes were provided out of New Haven for the runaway slaves. One road led eastward to Deep River and Chester where several families were involved in the underground railroad.

Another led northward to Southington where lived a farmer named Carlos Curtiss who was always ready to bring his wagon into New Haven and return with a slave or two hidden in the hay.



Define each term before using the word in a sentence.

1. Fugitive

2. Network

3. Cryptical

4. Prosperity

5. Underground Railroad


Write a brief response to each question.

1. How do you think the underground railroad operated?
2. Explain why the network to help fugitive slaves consisted of blacks and whites?
3. How do you think William Grimes felt when he ran into his former master?


1. Locate the southern parts of the U.S. that the fugitive slaves escaped from.
2. Trace the slavery route, beginning with Africa.


Year Canada Germany Ireland ItalyRussiaSwedenUnited Kingdom
1870 344 2423 9601 10 6 64 1462
1890 931 4427 105741876 1160 777 2316
1910 1316 4414 9004 13159 7980 1446 2659
1930 1502 2182 5575 14510 5987 1021 2374
1950 968 1143 2725 9843 4062 471 1316
1970 485 571 871 3866 1701 130 778


Look at the chart and answer the following questions.

1. How many more people came from U.K. than from Ireland in 1870?
2. Which country had the greatest population increase from 1870 to 1890?
3. What country had the least number of immigrants from 1870 to 1970?
4. What country’s population remained virtually unchanged from 1870 to 1950?
5. What year were most immigrants born in New Haven and what country were they from?
6. What two countries had about the same amount of immigrants born in New Haven?
7. In 1870, what was the ratio of Swedish to Italians? Compare different groups of immigrants who were born in New Haven in 1870.

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Community Action


The primary purpose of this lesson is to actively involve students in a community project by allowing students to select a meaningful issue or problem that affects their community. Student should analyze and develop a realistic plan of action that involves middle school students and their community in addressing the problem.

Students identified two problems of a very different nature that they felt impacted on their community. First, the long-standing and highly complex problem of the increase of substance abuse, which includes usage, trafficking, and destruction of life, property, and values in their community. Even though it was immediately apparent to all the students that due to the pervasiveness and complexity of the drug problem that there were no easy answers and further that school involvement would not be very significant in ameliorating the problem. Nevertheless, they felt a strong desire to address the problem.

Another problem that was of interest to the students was a shortterm and entertainment oriented problem that was not viewed as destructive, but seen as a ‘solvable’ problem, was the ‘Carnival’ in New Haven, held annually in the community.

Primary Concept: Activism

Curriculum Objectives:.

1. To become actively involved in the community.
2. To develop school related projects to assist in community development.

Secondary Concept: Problem-Solving

Instructional Objectives:

1. Identify a community problem.
2. Explain the causes of the problem.
3. Assess the effect that the problem imposes on the community.
4. Formulate goals and objectives that the community and schools can set to control the problem.
5. Outline steps and strategies for implementing objectives.
6. Develop evaluation instrument for measuring effectiveness of the projects.

Behavioral Objectives: The Carnival

1. List the main points contained in the newspaper article.
2. Select and define five vocabulary words from the article.
3. Formulate three comprehensive and analytical questions.
4. Identify geographical locations on a map.
5. Develop two map skill questions.

Problem Solving Approach

This lesson is organized around thought-provoking and developmental questions. The teacher will help students clarify their thinking through a series of problem-solving steps. The essential steps are:

1. Problem Recognition.
2. Assessment of the problem.
3. Clarification of the problem.
4. Goal setting.
5. Development of plans of action.

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How do you know that there is a problem?

Observation techniques using visual and audio modalities. Students will conduct a systematic observation of the problem and specifically identify indicators and observation strategies they use to identify the problem.

Indicators in the Community:

a. behavior: aimless loitering on street corners is a major indicator of individuals who use and sell drugs
b. physical appearance: excessively thin and gaunt-looking were viewed as adverse dietary and health effects of substance intake
c. dress: ostentation dressing, especially gold chains were identified as drug attire
d. residential patterns: public housing was considered a primary center for trafficking
Indicators at Roberto Clemente School

a. attendance: excessive absenteeism and truancy because of negative effects of drugs, causing students to physically feel bad and mentally disoriented, rendering the individual unmotivated to attend school on a regular basis
b. behavior: yelling, swearing at other students and authority figures
c. mind set: radical mood swings and negatively predisposed to learning
d. appearance: dazed eyes that are often red, thin and tired looking
What are other means of identifying the problem?

Indicators in the Community:

a. listening: street talk and individual accounts from neighbors give insight into the local area that the media is not aware of
b. warning: parents and relatives, as well as other members of the community who are cognizant of the problem share their concerns to the children clearly reveal the problem

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To what extent is this (drugs) a problem in the community?

a. records b) police reports c) observations d) interviews, media, attitudes

Is there a particular segment of the population that is more involved in the problem?

a) males between the ages of 14-22 b) minority group members, Puerto Rican and black

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1. What aspects of the problem most affect the community?
Violence, destruction of property, devaluation of life, school dropout.
2. What aspects of the problem can the community and students realistically address?
Sensitizing programs, exposure of adverse effects of drugs.
3. What can the school, churches, family and other institutions in the community specifically do?
Establish programs, become more involved with students, organize, establish closer ties with law enforcement agencies.

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1. What specific course of action will be undertaken to resolve the problem?
____a. identification of specific objectives in measurable terms, including dates, participants, and settings, and available resources.
____b. Procedure for implementing objectives
Detailed plan of action and checklist of step-by-step implementation, checklist, and provisions for monitoring, revisions and evaluation.

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1. What are the first steps to be undertaken?
____a. Meet with school officials to explain the program, get feedback, and discuss the use of available resources.
____b. Contact community members and organizations and request specific input.
____c. Establish guidelines, and assign individuals to continuously monitor and evaluate each phase and activity.

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The carnival is an annual event sponsored as a fund-raiser by New Haven Sheriff’s Association. It is scheduled to run through June 10.

This is the first time that the carnival has used the Legion Avenue location. Last year it set up on the Southern Connecticut State University campus; two years ago it used a large shopping center parking lot off Peat Meadows Road.

Twenty parents walked the edge of the carnival in the twilight Thursday with signs that read, “Why Here?” and “The West River Neighborhood cares about its children.”

They said they weren’t appeased by the heavier-than-normal police presence at the carnival. They want it shut down and move somewhere they consider more appropriate, a shopping center parking lot, for example.

“All of a sudden, we looked out the window and there it was, said Linda Bolduc, a parent who lives across the street from the site. “This is a residential neighborhood. You don’t stick something like this here.”

Poole, who lives on George Street, said posters advertising the carnival were tacked up days ago in Hamden and throughout New Haven but not in the West River section.

Had the neighbors known about the carnival, Poole said, they would have told city and state officials that Legion Avenue and Route 34 were too wide and too busy to assure the safety of children, and that people from several city neighborhoods would cut through the West River section on their way to the carnival.

Healey could not be reached for comment on Thursday, but an aide, Gail Egan said the neighbors concerns about safety were valid. But she said that she had understood that signs announcing the carnival had been posted in the neighborhood.







Points to Ponder

1. Did the protestors have valid reasons for opposing the carnival site?
2. Who should ultimately decide on the location of the carnival? Why?
3. Where would be the most appropriate location for the carnival?
4. Was the posting of advertisements the best way to inform the community residents of the impending carnival?


1. Locate Legion Avenue and Route 34 on a map of New Haven.
2. Identify an ideal location for the placement of the carnival.
(figure available in print form)

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Student Readings

The interdisciplinary nature of this unit allows all subject areas to be involved in the study, of the community. A social studies teacher can include different topics within the social studies curriculum, or can coordinate the study of units by involving other teachers and subjects. Contemporary issues, historical backgrounds, and personal interests can be used singularly or collectively to enhance understanding of the New Haven community. Below are a list of articles from the New Haven Register that were used in this unit (only three included in this work). Students thoroughly enjoyed the articles and developed innovative activities derived from the articles. Also, students processed and directed much of the information into meaningful community-oriented discourses and actions.

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Selected New Haven History Articles

Aviator Left Poems as Legacy
Boat Left High and Dry Atop East Rock
British Used Town as Bait in Trap for Washington
City Opened Doors to Fugitive Slaves
Circus Brought Excitement
Colonist Made Sure Youngsters Learned Lessons
Convenience and Subsidy Brought Yale to Town
Danes Parrish Noted for Missionaries
Deflict, Zoning Fears Kill Housing Ideas
Director of Parks Spoiled the Fun
Double Header Dogs Shows to Mark New Haven’s 350th
Elevator Would Have Made Park Visits Easy
Eleven Generations Ago, a Family of Puritans Helped to Carve a City Out of Wilderness
Harbor Shaped City’s History
French Connection Here Goes Back to Early Times
Englishman Ran First Pub
Fraternalism Flourished
German Immigrants Filled City with Song
Giving is an Ullman Family Tradition
Grove Street Cemetery First of Its Kind
Indentured Servant Came From Dublin
Italians Arrived Early and Kept on Coming
Mayor Ejected Map Maker
Museums, Troups, Films Kept Residents Entertained
Neighbor Got Best of Arnold
New Haven Ships Made Seas Unsafe for John Bull
Old Statehouse Demolished
Polish Sought Own Church
Portuguese Sought Jobs
Settlers Led on by Vision of Holy City
Skating was good on Lake Whitney
Two Brothers were First Jews Here
Typical Urban Problems Mingle with Rural Beauty

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Community and School References

1. Bernard, Jessie. The Sociology of Community. Glenview: Scott Foresman, 1973.
A sociological analysis of the dynamics of the community.
2. Bradfield, Maitland. National History of Association: A Study of the Meaning of Community. New York: International Univ. Press, 1973.
A detailed study of the Concept and Role of the American community..
3. Campbell, Ronald Fay. The Organization and Control of American Schools. Columbus: Merrill, 1965.
4. Carlson, A. Robert. The Quest for Conformity: Americanization Through Education. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975.
Pluralism, protestanism, homogeneity and other topics are discussed from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
5. Clapp, Elsie Ripley, Community Schools in Action. New York: Arno Press, 1971.
Action oriented schools that reflect the goals and values of their communities.
6. Conna, James. Understanding Communities. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1974.
An analysis of the concept of community.
7. Graham, Grace. The Public School in the American Community. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
A social foundation text that closely examines the social context of the school.
8. Hiemsta, Roger. The Educative Community, Linking the Community School and Family. Lincoln Professional Educators Public.
The major institutions involved in the education process are viewed individually and collectively.
9 Hillson, Maurie. Education and The Urban Community: Schools and The Crisis of the Cities. New York: American Book Co., 1968.
Urban schools problems are analyzed in a thought provoking manner.
10. Jorgenson, Joseph G. and Marcello Truzzi (ed.) Anthropology and American Life. Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall, 1974.
A series of post 1965 articles on the anthropological underpinnings of American. The focus is on the problems.
11. Litwak, Eugene. School Family and Neighborhood: The Theory and Practice of School Community Relations. New York, Columbia University, 1925.
A detailed practical book that offers guidelines for training in the improvement and of community and school relations.
12. Maciver, Robert Morrison. Community: A Sociological Study. New York: Blum, 1971.
The Functions and foundations of a community from a sociological perspective.
13. McClure, Larry. Experience-Based Learning: How to Make the Community Your Classroom. Portland: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 1977.
A comprehensive set of learning strategies involving the interaction of students, community and staff.
14. Urban Anthropology Volume #1, Spring, 1972.
Selected comparative articles on the urban setting from an anthrological viewpoint.
15. Winecoff, Larry. Focus: Seven Steps to the Community Involvement in Educational Problem Solving. Midland: Pendell.

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New Haven References

1. Brown, Elizabeth Mills. New Haven: A Guide to Architecture and Urban Design. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.
Detailed description of the architecture styles of New Haven.
2. Connecticut Preservation News, March, April 1989. Volume XII No. 2.
Places of interests and topics that are important to Connecticut history.
3. Johnston, Alexander. Connecticut: A Study of a Common Wealth Democracy. Boston: 1887.
Historical account of the political development of Connecticut communities including New Haven.
4. Memorials and Historical Points of Interest New Haven Park System, New Haven Park Commission, April 15, 1950.
Interesting New Haven sites.
5. Osterious G. Rollin, Three Centuries of New Haven 1638-1938.
An overview of the development of New Haven from the early colonial settlement to the modern city. Examines closely the changes in education, religion, and economics.
6. Remarkable City: Industrial New Haven and the Nation, 1800-1900, 1979 Volume 3.
7. Seymour Dudley George. New Haven Tercentenary 1638-1938 Memorial of Theolophilus Eaton. New Haven, Ct., April 1938.
Detailed narrative on New Haven.
8. Shumway Floyd, Hegal, Richard. New Haven: An Illustrated History. Windsor Publications, Woodland Hills, California.
Excellent illustrations and narrative on New Haven.
9. Sledge, Betsy and Eugenia Fayen. Enjoying New Haven. A Guide to the Haven Area. New Haven: East Rock Press, 1964.
Points of interest include historical buildings, schools, restaurants, parks and other sites.
10. Stewart, Daniel, Black Women in Greater New Haven. New Haven, 1970.
A look at contributions of noted black women in the greater New Haven area.
11. Tercentenary Commission of the State of Connecticut. Episodes from Colonial Connecticut 1935.
Dramatization of leading characters in New Haven and Connecticut history.
12. Townshend, Dorris. The Streets of New Haven. The origin of their names. New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1984.
Description of New Haven streets.
13. Woodward, Day Sarah. Early New Haven. New Haven: Edward P. Udd, 1929.
Comprehensive narrative on the people, conditions, and influences of New Haven.

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