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Minority Families Moved from the South to the North for Economic Growth

Barbara W. Coles Trader

Contents of Curriculum Unit 91.01.06:

To Guide Entry

I have found that students can understand new information more readily when they are able to correctly relate/associate their ordinary life experiences with prior knowledge. I agree with Orlanda Patterson, a renowned African American sociologist, “African Americans have the same needs as other ethnic groups”. “Youngsters must possess information which is essential for improving their mental health/self-esteem, economic status and the ability to hold positions of responsibility with power; the strategies of power are acquired through literacy”. Thus, I feel that students must be aware of their ancestry to understand this pluralistic American society, and they are to be taught in a positive manner.

The intended audience will be Chapter I students/regular education in the content-field of literary history basically in grades fifth through eighth. There will be 12-28 students in the classes. Thus, there will be less than five students in the subgroups within the class for cooperative/collaborative teaching and learning.

The different activities/strategies in the unit will encourage the youngsters to use various skills and abilities for learning. Practical methods will be used, both innovative and time-tested, to accelerate the achievement of the regular education students. Teaching strategies, which help students to strengthen comprehension skills, will be used in enjoyable ways. More effective teaching methods will be used for students to identify unknown words and read independently. Students will be guided to improve silent reading through building images based on prior knowledge, which will encourage students to read more on their own at home and in school. Motivating greater learning, speaking creativity and building students’ self-confidence/independence, will be addressed in the lesson plans to strengthen students’ achievements and retentions.

I have found that the students are aware of the economic, political and social environment in their communities, states and country. Hence; they ask parents, adults and educators serious questions about the past/present/future economic conditions which are negative and positive when reading, writing, orally discussing history and literature.

Many of the students’ parents and/or grandparents have Southern heritages. Thus, students can understand new information more readily when they are able to correctly relate/associate family life experiences/prior knowledge. Why did so many minority families move from the South to the North during the past?

For Historical Knowledge to Gain Understanding—Industrialization in the United States—Inventions: Railroads: Many Factories

The first turnpike opened in the State of Pennsylvania followed by constructions of highways, canals and railroads in 1792. During that era, Eli Whitney’s cotton gin made it profitable to grow short staple cotton. The southern Caucasian landowners were happy about the invention for farming profits. Hence, the textiles and gun factories such as: Winchester and Colt in Connecticut/Massachusetts flourished because there were skilled artisans/craftsmen. The New England Region had water power available to operate factories such as: Lake Whitney Dam in Hamden, Connecticut. The New England Region could send its goods by boats/ships to other parts of the country along the Atlantic Coastline.

The United States of America had about 15 factories in the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, agriculture flourished in the South due to the cotton gin and African American slaves who were working on the farms. Wheat became a very important agricultural crop in the Middle West after the invention of the McCormick’s reaping machine. The factory system was producing many of the products by 1850 that the farmers, planters, artisans and craftsmen needed to produce. Thus, the spinning wheel in the New England textile small businesses became obsolete because of the textile factories. Hence, the United States rapidly added new concepts, patents and inventions to the rapid growth of industrial technology. African American inventors who were born in 1806, 1810, 1856 and so forth, will also be included in my lesson plans.

Social Effects in the North—Major cities in the North were hard pressed to absorb their growing populations. New York City was one example: Many factory owners provided room and board for 6 people assigned to a single room; wage cuts were popular; child labor; crowded cities; long working hours/bad working conditions; riots and strikes became severe problems. Hence, the trade societies and unions began to organize in the 1850’s.

Railroad Construction 1850-1860: Railroad construction became massive in the northeast and northwest sections; industrialization and immigration gave the North a preponderance in resources that also influenced the outcome of the 1860 War.

Many of the immigrants came from Germany and Scandinavia because of the newly built railroads. The railroads helped to ship their crops to markets. The immigrants could get additional help, because more credit was being offered by more banks for them.

In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was passed; it declared by law the abolishment of slavery for African Americans. Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860. The nation was divided, because the northern states did not agree with slavery; the southern states favored slavery for profits. President Lincoln joined sides with the abolitionists; he declared that it was right and the duty of Congress to forbid slavery in the new states and territories. John C. Calhoun, during 1850 reported from Congress in Washington D.C., “The Southern members are more determined and bold than I ever saw them. Many avow themselves and are in greater numbers, admit that there is little hope for a remedy to abolish slavery.” One can refer to the Fugitive Slave Act and the Law in 1848 to abolish slavery in the North and Connecticut forever. Some African Americans were determined to be free and fled from the South according to Harriet Tubman’s Biography, (pp. 22-25).

The “Black Codes” were passed in 1865 to keep all African Americans in a condition of servitude. The African Americans would no longer be slaves interpreted by law, but those with private property had lost their property (at least 40 acres of land and one mule). The results were suppression, repression and depression. Thus, the Industrial Revolution had brought sweeping changes to America by 1860. The North was able to develop a vast industrial complex to meet the wartime needs during the Civil War. The North became completely self-sufficient in the production of military supplies, because the agricultural South was severely handicapped by its lack of industry, badly constructed roads and poor transportation. Thus, the South was forced to get guns, ammunition and machinery from Europe. Just before the 20th Century, a predominantly American agricultural society became one dominated by industry and railroads in the northern states including Connecticut and Massachusetts. Hence, the United States became the world’s leading producer of iron and steel.

Other startling economic/dramatic changes and ages during the 20th Century: Air/Atomic/Space Age: Automation.

The northern industrial centers needed laborers because of the war in Europe. A large supply of foreign immigrants for labor was curtailed. They were not allowed to immigrate to the United States the way that they had previously during the 1800’s-1914. Hence, laborers of other sources were greatly needed. Southern African Americans were available and willing substitutes; the wages were very low and opportunities were very limited for the African Americans in the southern states. For example, African Americans were paid ten or fifteen cents (10¢-15¢) per hour in the South. In the North, the African Americans were paid thirty or forty cents, (30¢-40¢) per hour according to David Bromley’s book, White Racism and Black Americans (pp. 30-31).

There were better schools, better safety for African American families, and their property in the northern cities. The social opportunities were much broader with more positive educational attributes for African American children, because there were no schools available for African American youngsters to attend in many sections of the southern states. Thus, the southern towns that had schools available for African Americans to attend, paid the black teachers less than the Caucasian teachers. Examples, the African American teachers in Houston, Texas during 1919 were paid forty-five to eighty dollars ($45-$80) per month while the white teachers were paid fifty to one hundred twenty-two dollars ($50-$122) per month. In Anne Arundel County, Maryland during 1920, there were 135 Caucasian teachers that were paid six hundred eighty-six dollars ($686) per month. Thus, there were 55 African American teachers paid at the rate of three hundred and six dollars ($306) per month according to Bromley’s book (pp. 31-33).

In 1915, there was a vast move for African Americans during World War I. A large number of African Americans moved to northern cities such as New Haven: New York City: Philadelphia: Washington, D.C.: Detroit: Memphis: St. Louis: Cleveland: and Pittsburgh by 1930 due to the industrial centers.

Racism has always been a big problem for African Americans. The Klu Klux Klan mobs began intimidating and lynching African Americans in southern communities more frequently during 1915. Even the North for African Americans was not “the land of milk and honey and the American dream the pretty picture people had painted of the North. African Americans were placed in limited quarters of urban cities with the “newly found freedom”. Some of the northern Caucasians viewed the newly migrated African Americans as economic threats and undesirables, refer to Bromley’s book (pp. 37-38). Thus, the movement to the northern states during World War I helped the African Americans to make greater strides economically, intellectually, socially and culturally. The author of this unit will give the student(s) an opportunity to view the speech of Jesse Jackson, Sr. which was spoken at the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta, Georgia on July 19, 1988 at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (NBC Network: Channel 4) on the video tape that is one of my possessions. The students will review the “great ray of hope” that our foreparents retained even when they were disenchanted, mistreated and the like. Many of our African American ancestors did not submerge their dreams in this pluralistic American society and culture.

1933—Franklin D. Roosevelt became the United States of America President. The New Deal: Farm Security Administration: Federal Housing Administration: Writers and Photographers Compiled State and Regional Histories. American governmental support of the arts began during the Depression. The Works Progress Administration was designed to offer financial relief to artists in many fields. The artists were paid monthly wages while working on a variety of national projects. The Farm Security Administration included photographers in 1935. A group of outstanding photographers were Dorothea Lange, Carl Mydans, John Vachon, Arthur Rothstein, Russell Lee and Ben Shahn. Ben Shahn was a painter and photographer. One of his photographs depicted an African American family in Arkansas, 1938. Shahn and Lange traveled the country to produce stunning documents of rural poverty. The photographers photographed tragedies of ruined farmers and eroded land of whites and blacks. Composers and playwrights were commissioned to create symphonies and plays to perform and present exhibitions in cities, small-town museums, and schools. Publications of magazines and newspapers began to flourish during this era.

Paintings of protests began to evolve due to social, political and economic problems. Ben Shahn was among the American artists who produced posters for government and private agencies during World War II. He did five posters in 1943 and 1944 for the C.I.O.’s Political Action Committee in which one of the posters was entitled The Welders. The poster depicts an African American and Caucasian welder. The Welders’ poster became familiar to millions of people. The poster can be found in Museums of American Modern Art throughout the nation. The lithograph’s slogan reads “for full employment after the war—register vote” According to the Time-Life Library of Art article, (pp. 112-113). The poster was distributed during the Political Action Committee’s highly successful 1944 registration drive among union members. The registration drive was aimed at elevating a pro labor Congress and the re-election of Franklin Roosevelt. The poster reflected a breakthrough in Civil Rights, because the wartime shortage of manpower forced many industries to drop their color barriers. The African Americans and Caucasians worked side by side under Presidential orders banning discrimination.

The students will observe other illustrations of photographs, posters and paintings from the Modern American Painting Book, Time-Life Publication, such as: The Subway; American Tragedy; The Park Bench; Reading from Left to Right; The Homelessness and Tombstones, 1942 by the African American artist Jacob Lawrence. He was famous for painting the realities of life in the ghetto and especially when Jacob Lawrence painted the Harlem street scene. He grew up in an overcrowded tenement in Harlem during early childhood. The above paintings were painted by the Social Realist Artists. They attacked the injustices/dehumanization of industrial and urban life. They believed that the art and artists must be engaged with the Contemporary World.

The students will interpret the pictures through the literary approach, Story Mapping or Webbing setting; main characters; features; action scenes; sequence of events; outcome indications and endings.

Story Mapping and/or Webbing can be a Teacher Directed or Student-Directed brainstorming activity. When using one of the techniques, record responses in an outline, the teacher can also diagram a Story Map on the chalkboard and/or chart paper. The students can use charting paper at their desks/tables individually or in subgroups.

Know Your City—State—Country

Olin-Winchester Industries, Inc.: Winchester Repeating Arms Company is located in New Haven, Connecticut; it began to advance in industrialization during World Wars I and II. The largest industry in the City of New Haven began to advance economically during 1778 when Eli Whitney began attending Yale College. Eli Whitney manufactured fire-arm parts which made fire-arms more effective; the company’s name was Whitney Arms. In 1858, the company’s name became Winchester Arms Company. Eli Whitney was making big profits, from his invention of the cotton gin, which made the southern slaveowners very happy about the invention for farming profits and importing many African slaves to the United States of America as a big business.

I was recently informed by some retirees while doing oral interviews, that Olin/Winchester did not only manufacture firearms (rifles/guns). The company manufactured smokeless gun powder called ball-powder; aircraft parts for bombs; roller-skates; cellophane; Western and Winchester ammunition such as: brass; bronze and other non-ferrous metal alloys in commercial forms: flashlights; dry cell batteries; trap and targets used in skeet/trap shooting; other commercial explosives; blasting caps; skis; lipstick tubes and the like.

Winchester Repeating Arms Company has a Rifle Target Range in Hamden, Connecticut. The Powder Farm/Pine Swamp is in the areas of Putnam Avenue, Clifford and Treadwell Streets; the powder storage site has been used for the testing area during many years. Thus, the shooting range and house are located on the property.

In 1944, Winchester Repeating Arms established a Pension Plan for the workers. The Pension Plan provided retirement annuities at the age of 65 for all hourly paid factory and office employees. The Pension Plan along with the Federal Social Security System gave workers and future ones a greater sense of economic growth and security. Hence, many minorities worked for the company; the population really began to grow in New Haven, Connecticut due to more migration from the Southern States.

During August 31, 1945, many of the finished products were rapidly accumulating due to Peacetime. Less workers were needed and branches of the company were closing throughout our country.

Hence, during World Wars I and II, the company owned a bank, bowling alley and other places for entertainment. In 1980, there was a strike for six months. Olin Corporation was sold to a group of local investors and factory managers who formed the United States Repeating Arms Company. The strike really affected the Newhallville neighborhood economically in which our school is located. The people and the community are still suffering from the economic deterioration/social ills in our pluralistic American society.

During 120 years and four-generations of workers/families, the Gun Company that won the West sought new marketing. In 1985, the machinists began assembling parts for lawn chairs, buses, garden hoses and aircraft.

Lesson Plans

The Lessons will be taught at least twice per week in all the daily classes from November-March.

1. Did you know that the Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation in the State of Virginia is owned by Winchester Repeating Arms Company?
2. Did you know that Winchester Machinists were unionized in 1945? Working conditions and benefits were greatly improved.
In 1945, the factory was unionized after a long labor struggle. The Labor Union was for machinists, and the Labor Union still exists. Working conditions improved in a more positive manner, especially for African Americans and minorities. Hence, African Americans no longer were required to apply for jobs outdoors; they could come inside the building and apply for jobs in the office just as Caucasians. This information was told to me by several retired employees of Olin/Winchester Arms Company. The students will interview Helen Battle, Charlie Johnson and others. Jim Mitchell will meet my classes in the Media Center.

Sample Lesson Plans for Economic Growth and Development

I. Weeks #1-2
Objective #1. The students will read biographies using paperback books and encyclopedias about famous people.

The students will read the lives of African American inventors, such as: Norbert Rillieux, 1806-1894; Elijah McCoy, 1843-1929; Lewis Latimer, 1848-1928; Granville Woods, 1856-1910; Garrett Morgan, 1877-1963; Kathrine Johnson, 1918; Annie Easley, 1932.

Objective #2. The students will interview a family member/family friend, and write a short biographical story. The writers will record the facts and keep the story interesting to read in the class. The story will be entitled, for example: Mary or John Doe’s Economic Experiences at Olin/Winchester Repeating Arms Factory.

I will use the chalkboard a great deal to model the lesson/s and chart/s when doing Story Mapping of a picture or story before the students do the Cloze Reading Procedure. The Cloze Comprehension skills procedure is an assessment used to test the student/s’ thinking abilities. According to current literary research, the Cloze Method enhances higher order reading and thinking skills, critical thinking skills, and promotes more proficient writers.

II. Weeks #3-6
Objective #1. The students will orally discuss their prior knowledge and family experiences about the Winchester Industrial Factory.

The students will be in Cooperative Learning groups with no less than three students in each subgroup. The teacher will use unlined charting paper which will be hooked on the chalkboard in front of the classroom for Story Mapping. The teacher will continue to use the Story Maps, for the future lessons, which will include visual art and Holistic Writing.

Actual samples and designs of Story Mapping are available in the New Haven Public Schools Reading Department located at 54 Meadow Street in New Haven, Connecticut 06519. Hence, I, the teacher, have samples of Story Maps in the classroom at Jackie Robinson Middle School. The teacher will elicit ideas from the students about the products that the Winchester Factory has manufactured during the past and is manufacturing during the present.

Objective #2. The students will listen and silently read the teacher’s transcription entitled “The United States Winchester Repeating Arms in New Haven, Connecticut.”

Each student will have the typed story to read along while listening to the cassette tape on the tape recorder.

A transcription is a written record of oral talk; for example, a conversation, court trial, or an improvised dialogue.

The teacher will collect the Transcriptions at the end of the story. Thus, the teacher will give each student the Clozed Technique version of the Winchester Factory story. A brief sample is in this unit: Winchester Factory produced

1 _____ products. The shooting range is located in 2 _____ Connecticut.

1. (a.) One (b.) Seven (c.) Many
2. (a.) New Haven (b.) Hamden (c.) Hartford
Objective #3. The students will demonstrate notetaking skills; practice listening carefully; improve incorrect spelling, punctuation and capitalization.

The students will take notes while listening to the Winchester Factory story cassette tape on the tape recorder for the second time. Thus, the Transcription will be used as a basis for individual students to develop their compositions/ journals and editing to arrange and structure creative writing ideas with positive and meaningful learning experiences suitable for students.

Objective #4. Students will translate a personal experience into Cartoons and/or Comic Strips.

(a) Students will extend experiences through formal discussion and/or additional writing.
(b) Students will transpose poem/s into Comic Strips.
(c) Students will write story dialogue using quotation marks and other punctuation.
I have observed that students, especially those who are not very talented in artistic abilities, find the Pfeiffer Cartoons and Comic Strips Technique easy to do. The Pfeiffer Method encourages a great deal of printed text along with simple character drawings.

I have Illustrated Samples in my classroom and Teacher Guided Models of selections/suggested writing plans.

Objective #5. Students will read and discuss orally their cartoons/comic strips; they will orally read, discuss their scripts and dramatize their experiences.

It has been found that the text in most comic strips is minimal. Comic Strips and cartoons present opportunities for students to be creative, artistic, to rewrite and invent dialogue for well-known characters. Other Pfeiffer’s cartoons can be brought to class; can be examined for content and style. Students will be encouraged to bring Doonesbury’s cartoons and other Cartoonists materials. I will explain to the students that cartoons and comic strips are also very appealing to adult readers; children/teenagers are not the only ones who read and appreciate cartoons/comic strips.

III. Weeks 7-12
Objective #6. Students will share their personal experiences about eating Mounds Candy.

The students will develop Story Maps/Webs demonstrating an appeal to the senses for descriptive paragraph writing: taste; smell; sight; touch.

Objectives #7-#10 will be used for the Mounds Candy Factory; Pratt and Whitney; Sargent Company, and other factories in the Greater New Haven area.

Reading: Thinking: Writing

It is a fact that we live in an American society of printed words. Reading is a basic tool of education, and it is one of the most important skills in our daily lives. People can acquire new ideas through reading. They can obtain needed information and broaden their interests. They can more fully enjoy watching television, go to the movies/theaters and the like. Many people who live in more culturally developed countries, read hundreds and thousands of words daily. However, there are a large number of parents who are reluctant to read; there are also many school age children who are “reluctant readers”.

Reluctant readers are adults and youths who hate reading; they may not look at or read a single book, newspaper, magazine and/or periodical. The adults who are “reluctant readers” will read their mail; they will read signs and phrases. They will not necessarily read materials that consist of complete sentences and paragraphs.

The students will be given independent reading assignments periodically during the classes and for homework. Independent reading helps the students to improve their reading ability, by reading materials, that are interesting and relate to their classwork. Reading achievement is directly related to the amount of reading children do in school and outside of school. This is why it is very important for the instructor to teach study skills. The instructor, in Chapter One, can often help reluctant readers develop better study skills. Study skills will be addressed in the lesson plans. The teaching of good study habits will also be addressed.

Developing Good Study habits and Tips: There are many basic approaches to studying in class and at home. Some quick steps: Survey, Question, Read. Recite, and Review/Record/Write.

Positive American FamilY Images Activities

Students will strengthen positive self-concepts of family structure and study the theme of Modern American Family Literature through graphic arts in this program. Students will focus on building strong family character, self-worth and history when gathering photographs, oral history, memoirs, paraphernalia, and memorabilia of family members that also include individual students. Students will further improve literary skills, independent thinking, creative writing, reading, understanding classics and novels of families with positive feedback when designing their Family Albums in class. They will decorate the Family Album covers with different fabrics, wallpaper or carpet; weave long sneaker laces through holes punched into colored oaktag 11 x 8 inches with ten pages. Students will tape baby and current photo of themselves; write brief autobiography on first page. Each of the other pages will have such as: family photos, pencil/pen, cartoon/comic drawings of favorite pets, vehicles, toys and other graphic crafts. Students will include forms of creative writing on each remaining page such as: a vignette, poem, song, journal entry, short story, an interview, storyplay and three photobiographies.

Students will display, discuss and videotape their projects in the classroom during Parents’ Day springtime. They will reflect upon family research, positive personal and concrete experiences compiled in Family Albums with great embellishment. Students will use content-related literature to improve skills rather than relying exclusively on basic textbooks.

Firsthand historical events can become so real. There are important events which occur in all persons’ lives. How do the events affect us? What personal ways do we remember the events? People can receive interesting information/answers when conducting and interview. Here are some hints: Think of an important local, national or international event (the first moon landing: a “live concert” artist; the Challenger explosion; Rosa Parks and the like). Talk to someone about the event; talk to a teacher, relative or a relative’s friend. The students will use the questions as a guide and tips on interviewing; copies will be given to the students to staple in their Winchester Repeating Arms Factory notebooks when they interview retirees.

Tips on Interviewing

Follow these tips when you interview someone.

1. Bring a pencil and paper so you can take notes.

2. Find a quiet place for the two of you to talk.

3. Be sure the person is comfortable before you get started.

4. Know what you want to talk about before you begin.

5. Give the person plenty of time to answer each question.

6. Write whatever you think is important.

7. Thank the person for the interview when you are done.

Black History Month and Brotherhood Week:

Economic Growth and Development

February  Weeks One-Four: #1. The students will be doing their final drafts. They will do independent reading and write a one-page summary about Mounds Candy (24-28 grade seven students in the project). #2. The students will read factual excerpts written by the instructor entitled: Washington and Two Marches 1963 and 1983. King’s speech is based on the First Amendment—the Constitution of the United States: King explains in his speech, “why the oppressed people can no longer wait for their Constitutional rights; the dream and symbol of democracy; the threats to the dream; the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan and what has to be done to fulfill the dream for democracy in our Country.” #3. The students will continue reading factual issues, to think positive about African Americans, other ethnic groups and their accomplishments. #4. The students will write at least 20 facts about the New Havener, Anthony Azano. One of the main reasons, for this homework assignment, is because the students can easily relate to automobile theft alarms. They have become very popular nationwide. #5. The students will read additional information during the first week of March. They will read about the African American Industrialist inventors who have been mentioned on a previous page in this unit. The students will submit the book report during the first week of March.
#l. The reader/writer should look for topics and subtopics as he/she surveys the reading material. #2. The survey phase is to gain a general idea of the kids and things discussed in the selections. #3. Recitation (to recite) can help the reader remember what he/she has read. #4. When surveying, the reader/writer should review the questions at the end of the chapter(s). #5. The review time is a good time to study with another person. #6. The reader/writer should pay special attention to words and passages printed in italics.

Homework: Homework is important, because parents are their children’s first and influential teachers. Parents that help their children to learn are very important to the students’ academic success; it is not only gained by materialistic assets. The best way for parents to help their children, become better readers, are to read themselves; they should read to younger children and help all of the school age children with their homework. I strongly believe that students’ achievements rise significantly when students are conscientious to complete their assignments. The quality of homework is important. The well-designed assignments should relate directly to the classwork and should extend the students’ learning beyond the classroom. Homework is most useful when the instructor carefully prepares the assignments, lets the parents know the requirements and encourages them to help their children complete the assignments.

The homework assignments in this unit will be compiled, at the end of the total lesson plans, that are required during class time. I will make copies, of the compiled homework requirements, so that they can be easily stapled in the section of homework assignments and placed in my lesson plan book. The students’ homework requirements will be due on Fridays while this curriculum unit is being taught.

Extended Skills and Enhancement Activities

#1. Students will develop a Web to organize information. Effective writing is often planned beforehand. I have found it to be useful when creating a working structure, patterning planned information and organizing ideas.

#2. Students will design their quizzes to memorize important facts for homework and in class (the students will make flashcards with questions and memorize essential terminology). List at least 10-15 facts. Design cartoons starting with Frame 1 depicting Quiz; Frame 2 will ask question and proceed with frames 3-6 to demonstrate the correct information and answer using positive drawings.

It is very important to let the students, in the middle schools grades, continue to draw or sketch when they are doing the following: writing summaries, book reports, drafts, and free writing during class time/homework assignments. I have witnessed the dependent and semi-dependent groups who have greater difficulties, with the writing skills, who usually gain more courage to write if they are allowed to sketch and/or draw for several minutes before the process of writing. Speaking and listening, in addition to reading and writing, are good foundations to help students become better readers and writers. This is why I think that reluctant readers will also benefit a great deal educationally when I present this unit.

“The Theft Proof Car”

1. Did you know that the protective device for cars/trucks was invented and patented by a New Havener, Anthony Azano, who lived on Dewitt Street?

“SNET—New Haven”

2. Did you know that SNET (Southern New England Telephone Company) organized in 1882 and is still the switchboard for the entire State of Connecticut?
3. Many others such as James F. Boyle invented the Rescue Raft; Gregory Coy invented the first wires/batteries for First Phone.
4. (a.) Pratt and Whitney—1961.
____(b.) Mounds Candy/Peter Paul’s Candy Story—1919. It is known as Peter Paul Cadbury division of Schweppes, Inc., during the present.
____(c.) Pond Lily Company for 82 years closed in 1978 (Textile Plant) for United Textile Workers—Local 2137. Many! Many! More! Discoveries!!!
In conclusion, minorities, especially African Americans, moved from the South to North for many reasons to improve economically, educationally and the like: due to slavery; during World Wars I and II; due to discrimination, segregation, injustice, and killings by southern whites. 1915-1950: the boll weevil and a series of bad cotton crop years; droughts affected tobacco, peanuts and other crops for profits; tired of share cropping; labor recruiters from the North offered southern African American workers many jobs such as industrial ones.

Thus, African American workers encouraged their relatives and friends to move North with them. 1950-present: (The Civil Rights Movement). The teacher and students will do research in the encyclopedias about Modern Farm Machinery and the Cotton Picker: The Key to Economic Operation Especially in the South. Finally, there seems to be a backlash, in my opinion. Many African Americans are moving from the North to the South, because many factories and businesses have relocated in southern states due to lower property tax rates.

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Selected Bibliography for Teachers

Blassingame, John W. Slave Testimony: The Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

A precise study of African American slaves and their lives.

Boime, Albert. Art Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

A Study of African American artists whose works have been omitted by art historians in the past.

Bromley, David G. White Racism and Black Americans. Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishers, 1972.

A study of anthology and inquiry which focus on the consequences of white racism for African Americans.

Groisser, Philip L., Mastering American History. New York: Oxford Book, William H. Sadlier, 1977.

A study of American democracy, pressing problems in areas such as: urbanization, poverty, status of African Americans and role of minorities in building America.

James, Charles L. From the Roots: Short Stories by Black Americans. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

A literary development of African American fiction in a historical and sociological perspective during the past 80 years. It is suitable for high school students.

Lamar, Howard R. Encounter with A City: Education and the Promise of Local History in New Haven. New York: College Board Publications, 1985.

The article highlights New Haven, Connecticut and economic history from the 1700’s-1800’s.

Lemann, Nicholas. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

The book consists of many chapters written by the news journalist during the Civil Rights Movement.

McCormick, Kathleen. “Reading, Responding, WritingReading Texts. Lexington, Massachusetts: D. C. Heath, 1987.

A book of current research on theory/strategies of students to read/write text responses cognitively with the use of general and literal ideology.

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Reading Lists for Students and Resource Materials

Adams William African American Authors. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.

The booklet has poetry and other literary works that are easy for students in grades 7-12 to read and comprehend.

London, Kathleen. Who Am I? Who Are You? Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1983.

Coping with friends, peers, feelings and other teenage dilemmas are addressed.

Schell, Edward. The Writing of Young Students Biographies and Diaries. Connecticut: Xerox Publications of Weekly Reader 1977.

The booklet illustrates how youngsters can compare their writings.

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Educational Trips

1. Students will visit the Winchester Repeating Arms in New Haven, Connecticut.
2. Students will visit the Afro-American Historical Society on Orchard Street in New Haven, Connecticut.
3. Students will interview some retirees from Winchester Repeating Arms who helped to unionize the plant in 1945 such as: Jimmy Mitchell; Helen Battle, Charlie Johnson and others.
4. Students will visit Lake Whitney and the Whitney Museum located in Hamden, Connecticut.

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