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Investigating Conflict Resolution Through the United Nations

Ralph Russo

Contents of Curriculum Unit 02.03.03:

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The United Nations is an imperfect yet unique model of international cooperation. The UN provides aid to developing nations, peacekeeping in troubled areas, awareness of human rights violations, and a world court. It remains fifty-seven years after its inception in 1945. Unlike the League of Nations which had less international support and subsequently disbanded, the United Nations appears to have enough, although sometimes wavering, commitment from the major world powers to continue for years to come. Some limitations inhibit the effectiveness of United Nations’ operations. Yet, the United Nations continues to operate in the world community. The success and limitations of the United Nations’ model and experiences provides excellent material for teachers and students to examine international relations, globalization, the world economy, world cultures, diplomacy, and conflict resolution. The imperfection of the United Nations may draw criticism. However, it also lends itself to questions and discussion in the classroom on how the international community can collectively resolve problems. Pregnant questions regarding the purpose and role of the United Nations can drive general discussion or act as a launching pad for more in-depth study. Has the UN made the world a better place? What has the UN been effective at? How could the UN be more effective? What limits the UN from being more effective? Under what conditions do you think the powers of the world would support making the UN more powerful and effective? What should individual countries have to contribute in order to make the UN more effective? Does the survival of the UN owe itself to UN effectiveness? Or, does the specter of unprecedented destruction in a world war keep the world community interested in the UN? What challenges will the UN face in the near future? How effective has the United Nations been in performing a peacekeeping role and resolving conflict in the international community? All of the above questions may serve as driving questions in looking at the United Nations and international relations. This unit will inevitably nibble at some of these questions. However, the primary focus, will aim at the peacekeeping role that the UN has played in attempting to resolve conflict and maintain peace. By investigating conflict resolution and peacekeeping, students will examine and critique a framework that they may be able to internalize and apply to their experiences as an adolescent and an adult.

Certainly the world is much different than the world that rejected the League of Nations. The fall of the Soviet Empire seems to have opened the door for the ascension of the UN to prominence in managing world affairs. Yet, the specter of old problems in the Balkans and the Middle East continues to challenge the UN. The emergence of new problems such as world terrorism and reactions to terrorism are straining international relations. The proliferation of technology, world population boom, and the growing demands of developing nations will continue to pose challenges to the world community. Can the UN effectively help resolve these issues?

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This unit is being designed for college-level ninth grade students of World History at Wilbur Cross High School in New Haven, Connecticut. By no means will the material be exclusively limited to that group. Application to any secondary contemporary issues or world history course is possible with little modification. Traditionally, World History is a survey course that is taught chronologically. For teachers following this methodology, some or all, of this unit can be employed during study of the twentieth century. Those who teach thematically can employ this unit when teaching about world conflicts. Although the material in the unit could be adapted to most any class size, it is aimed at a full-sized class of 24 students. Simulation activities might work better with a group of 6-12 students. However, in practical terms, 24 are the usual size for a freshmen cluster class. Next year, this unit will be taught early in the World History College-level survey course. The framework through which conflicts are brought to the UN and acted upon can later be a point of reference for examining classical conflicts in antiquity. For instance, how would a UN model have benefited the Greek city states during the Peloponnesian War or, helped European and Muslims more peacefully resolve the Crusades? Of course much of this exercise would be informed speculation. Nonetheless, it can give students exercise in applying problem solving skills within a framework that currently exists. Wilbur Cross High School is a large comprehensive urban high school of about 1500 students. The freshmen class is over 500 students. Examining historical examples of problem solving and conflict resolution will hopefully provide a healthy framework through which young people will learn to identify. Transience, low reading and writing scores, adjustment to growing bodies and a new school, and diversity offer challenges peculiar to working with freshmen. The notion of helping young people develop positive models of conflict resolution is a healthy one. Freshmen year is a period of adjustment, so a unit on examining conflict resolution seems to make sense.

Young people face the daunting task of growing up in a shrinking world. Technology is increasingly offering more and more information to people at faster speeds. Yet, despite progress in technology, some sociologists speak of increased feelings of isolation. Demands on the resources of the world are increasing as the population increases and the availability of some natural resources appears fleeting. Outbreaks of incurable diseases, such as AIDS, range from being a concern in some areas of the world to being an epidemic in other areas. Unprecedented environmental concerns appear to be growing as the developing world modernizes and first world nations seek to advance. Unfortunately, the historical record shows that almost all political entities, whether they are ancient societies or twentieth century nations, have undergone periodic if not regular episodes of conflict ranging from small skirmishes to global scale wars. The casualties for the two major conflicts of the twentieth century, World War I and World War II, total in the tens of millions. What is alarming is that these two conflicts started and finished within only thirty-one years of each other. While world war has been avoided in the last 57 years, the nuclear arsenals of the world powers and the threat of proliferation in developing nations have made the prospect of a future world conflict nightmarish. This outline of a parade of future problems is easy to subscribe to without a healthy and optimistic attitude. The record shows that nations may have eradicated some diseases, but not war. So the chances of conflict in the future are maybe a case of not if but when.

Will teenagers inherit a world of doom and gloom? This is possible but avoidable. The world has avoided the use of its most deadly weapons of mass destruction for over fifty years. Modern technology also holds the promise of solving many global problems. Electronic media provide quick and reliable communication. Advancements in the science of food production have increased crop yields in smaller spaces. The medical community can now treat a variety of ailments and diseases that once could not be treated. Science also holds promise in developing safer and environmentally friendlier energy sources. Lastly and most importantly, a major outbreak of world conflict has been avoided for over fifty years. And unlike in generations past, the international community has at least a forum for dealing with international concerns in the United Nations. Arguably, in this era of devastating weaponry, having a world body that can intervene to resolve conflict is the key to lasting peace.

This unit offers to facilitate student access to the successes and frustrations of the United Nations’ peacekeeping initiatives. The hope is to present a model of cooperation that will hopefully better prepare young people to handle personal conflict and graduate to understanding conflict resolution for larger groups of people.

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Students will explore the role and purpose of the United Nations through literature, hypertext, and film.

Students will participate in simulation exercises that model the forum and function of United Nations councils.

Students will demonstrate problem-solving skills and apply them to international concerns relating to trade and access to resources, international relations, human rights, and conflict resolution.

Students will develop informed opinions orally and in writing about the role of individual nations in the international community and what responsibilities nations may have to each other in the international community.

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Activities of the unit begin with exploring and defining concepts that will be common vocabulary throughout the unit. Students will engage in short readings and discussion to develop working definitions of community/global community, diplomacy, conflict/conflict resolution, peacekeeping, technology, and human rights. Throughout this process students can be encouraged to compare ideas they observe and experience regarding their communities (structure, behavior, conflict, and rights) to issues reported at the international level. On-line reference sites, such as, http://www.freedomhouse.org examine the status of the human condition in many countries. Ratings and explanation of how free (or not free) is a country is contained in their annual report.

Information about personal and group conflict can be obtained from local sources. Many students will have explored conflict resolution through the New Haven Public Schools’ Social Development Program. Some of the material in this curriculum can be modified to examine the dynamics of historical conflict. In this unit, some activities from Chapter 6 Managing Conflict, of the New Haven Public Schools’ Social Development Student Workbook have been adapted to reinforce conflict identification and resolution skills (see Appendix 1).

Defining community and examining the dynamics of community can be explored from student’s personal experiences as well as from sociology texts. Discussing the behaviors in local communities might serve as a point of introduction to discussing the behavior of larger entities, such as ethnic groups and nations, in the global community. Assigning students to complete an observation of his, or her, own neighborhood or school can provide practical examples for discussion. Who are the players in the neighborhood? What happens on daily basis? Is there conflict? If so, who is involved and how are the conflicts resolved? Assigning daily observation and a journal for one week would generate information for continues classroom discussion. Anyone uncomfortable about analyzing his or her neighborhood might substitute the school community. Questions to guide student observation are included in a question bank (See Appendix 2).

Answering these questions is aimed at creating a foundation of understanding that all of us more or less live in a microcosm of the international community. Parallels exist between the dynamics of many types of groups.

Exploration of the size and scope of the international community will coincide with this personal investigation. Knowledge of country names, political boundaries, major geographical features, languages spoken, zones of conflict, spheres of influence, diplomatic relations, will be assessed through brainstorming, think-pair-share exercises and short reading for content exercises. In order to establish spatial relationships between places and to reinforce geography skills students will have to demonstrate awareness of location on world maps. Students will generate maps through a homespun geography exercise called “It’s a Puzzling World”(Appendix 3). The result will be students creating personal and wall-sized maps that will act as points of reference throughout the rest of the unit.

The United Nations will be presented as a relatively recent and progressive forum that includes governments representing nearly all of the world’s population. Some of the problems of international relations will be discussed i.e., cultural barriers, competition for resources. Students can also explore traditional ways that nations have interacted. Establishing diplomatic ties, making alliances, and establishing mutually beneficial trading arrangements will be explored as relatively peaceful means of interaction. Wars of conquest or defense will be explored as an alternative to peace. The “Dynamics of International Relations” and “Changing Times/Changing Borders” activities (Appendix 4) are included to establish that political relations and borders are not static but historically change over time. Finding the mutually beneficial relationships is often a key component to the survival and success of individual nations.

The thrust of the unit is twofold. First, it will allow students to critically examine a convincing argument that mutually-beneficial arrangements among nations are a desired alternative to the horrors of wars. Second, it will offer international peacekeeping as a process that offers hope in attaining this end. A brief show of statistics of war casualties, photos of burned out cities and damaged landscapes, and clips from film media can be used to illustrate the horrors of modern warfare. Other suggested topics for research and discussion include: the failure of the League of Nations, causes of World War I and World War II, the development of weapons of mass destruction. The story of the foundation of the United Nations is worthy to investigate, as is the general history of the UN. The major organizations and roles of the UN can also be an area of investigation. Looking for accomplishments, limitations, and setbacks are strategic ways to approach the function and effectiveness of the UN. Included in this unit are activities aimed at exploring the general function, role and promise of the UN model for encouraging positive international relations and minimizing the chances of the proliferation of armed conflict through peacekeeping.

As a general strategy, students might begin by first brainstorming knowledge about the UN. Providing reading for information might follow. Access to the internet can provide a variety of opportunities to learn about the organization and role of the UN. The UN hosts a variety of interactive and informative websites. These include taking a virtual tour (See Appendix 5). At this site, students can learn the names of member nations, the names and function of major UN agencies (General Assembly, Security Council, International Court of Justice, Secretariat, Economic and Social Council). Students can also get familiar with the concept of acronyms.

Acronyms describe most UN organizations and operations. Students can gain familiarity with the most commonly used acronyms by completing an association game- Acronimity (See Appendix 6).

After exploring the organization and function of the UN, the students will investigate UN peacekeeping operations (See Appendix 7). Some examples worth exploring include the United Nations involvement in the Middle East, Korea, the Congo, Cyprus, the Balkans, Namibia, and Somalia. Evaluating the success (or failure) of various missions is one approach. The instructor can present a thorough examination of one or more United Nations’ peacekeeping operations -- name of mission, date, location, purpose, participants (the peacekeeping nations and the warring factions), significant developments, and outcomes. Research on the current events in an area in question might be presented to show the current state of affairs of an area. Once students are presented this format for investigating a peacekeeping operation, students can research additional operations as individuals or in groups. Upon completing research, students will be able to present their findings to the class. A visual aid, such as a wall map, can be pinned or labeled with the names of each operation as the operations are presented. Ultimately, students will be invited to critique each mission to define successes and failures.

Investigating primary source material can lessen the sometimes-impersonal shape of history when it is left to presentation by statistics. An excellent resource for examining the human dimension of UN peacekeeping is in Eyewitness to Peace: Letters from Canadian Peacekeepers compiled by Jane Snailham. It contains personal letters written by UN peacekeepers from the soldier’s theater of operation. Reading aloud and assigning letters to read can be used to identify the perspective of those who are eyewitnesses and active participants in the peacekeeping process (See Appendix 8). Reading for Information questions can include: What role does the author have in the peacekeeping process? Does the author of the letter appear to believe in his mission? What responsibilities does this peacekeeper have? What positive and negative implications does the author make about what he or she is witnessing? A possible follow up activity might be to actually identify a current peacekeeping operation and write a class letter of interest in learning about the operation to peacekeepers in the field. Another activity can involve the teacher contacting local veterans groups to see if there is a local veteran with peacekeeping experience that might be interested in being a guest speaker.

A culminating activity of this unit would be to hold a simulation in the classroom that involves some aspect of the Security Council, World Court, or General Assembly. Attending a local Model UN conference such as Yale’s high school Model UN, as a delegation is also a possibility. (See Appendix 9)

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Classroom Activities

Classroom Activities: Activities for this unit are organized into separate appendices as outlined below.

Defining termsAppendix 1
Student journal Appendix 2
It’s a Puzzling WorldAppendix 3
Dynamics of International RelationsAppendix 4
United Nations Virtual TourAppendix 5
Acronym RecognitionAppendix 6
Investigating Peacekeeping OperationsAppendix 7
Letters from PeacekeepersAppendix 8
SimulationAppendix 9

Appendix 1:

Lesson: First Steps

Overview: Students will discuss and define terms for the unit of study. This will include asking students to draw from what they know as well as having the teacher provide key concepts and examples.

Objectives: Students will discuss and record definitions of the following terms for this unit of study: community/global community, culture, conflict/conflict resolution, diplomacy, peacekeeping, United Nations, acronym, and human rights.

Materials needed: Dictionary, Textbook Glossary, Worksheet I

Procedure: Define one word at a time by brainstorming with the class and providing what information is necessary to sufficiently define each term. Students may be prompted with visual or auditory aids. A simple definition of terms provided below.


Community- group of people linked by patterns of behavior. The links might be cultural, economic, professional, or by avocation,

Global community- the collective body of nations and people of the world

Culture- a people’s unique way of life, as shown by its tools customs, arts, and ideas1

Conflict- Active verbal, physical, and/or psychological disagreement

Conflict Resolution- resolving verbal, physical, and/or psychological disagreement

Diplomacy- mediation, negotiating, and peacekeeping among individuals, groups, or countries

Peacekeeping- active steps to reduce or resolve conflict between two or more parties

United Nations- an international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world.2

Acronym- a word formed from the first letters of a phrase or title.3

Human rights- belief that all people, regardless of race, color, or status have basic entitlements that should not be violated by others.

Worksheet I: The Global Village

A village of 100 people that represents the earth’s population would look like this:4

57 Asians
21 Europeans
14 North and South Americans
8 Africans
70 would be people of color, 30 would be white
30 would be Christian, 70 would be of other faiths
25% of the wealth would be in the hands of 6 people, all citizens of the United States
70 would be unable to read
80 would live in substandard housing
1 would have a university education

source: Conflict Resolution Student Workbook Social Development Department New Haven Public Schools p. 74

Answer the following based on the above information:

What area of the world has the greatest percentage of population?
What percentage are North and South Americans
What percentage are literate (able to read)?
What percentage would have a college education?
What percentage of people have 50% of the wealth?

Appendix 2:

Lesson: Observation

Overview: Students will study his or her environment for awareness of characteristics that define it as a community.


Students will observe common activities in his or her community for 3-5 days within a one-week period and record observations. Students will answer questions from the question bank in a journal.

Materials needed: question bank, journal


Review definition for the word community by asking students to recall information from notes or class discussion. Tell students that most of us belong to more than one community: a local community that consists of where we live and the area immediately surrounding it ( a neighborhood), a broader community that consists of being a citizen of a town, state, and country. Explain that people may even identify with being part of a community defined by language, culture, hobbies, and profession. Ask students if they could define the parameters of the various community in which they live. Answers can be written by students on paper or given orally to teacher. Inform students that they are going to observe and record activities in their community for one week. Students should answer the following questions based on their observations.

Issue question bank with instructions.

Question Bank

Who are the players (members) of the community?

What languages and ethnicity are evident through observation?

How far does the space of the community extend approximately?

What kind of exchange of goods and services occurs?

What technology is used for transportation and communication? What technology do you see used the most?

What type of organizations are active in this community? What type of artistic expression is evident?

Describe a conflict that was observed. Who resolved the conflict? How was it resolved?

After students have recorded their observations, discuss the similarities and differences of student responses. Point out that often communities often overlap and interact with one another. Discuss examples from student observations or bring in examples. (ie. Ten families live on Henry Street. Nine of the families speak Spanish as their primary language. There is a corner store where most everyone does their shopping. Eight of the families attend the same church, which is two blocks away. The children of the families attend the neighborhood school, which is three blocks away. Once a week city employees pick up the garbage on the street. Each day a postman delivers the mail.)

Appendix 3

Lesson 2: “It’s a Puzzling World”


Students demonstrate knowledge of geographic and political location by assembling a world map from map puzzle pieces.


Students will demonstrate the names and locations of political and geographic features by assembling a map of those features from map puzzle pieces.

Materials needed:

A world wall map, pins or tape, wall or bulletin board space


Before class: the teacher cuts up a map by political and/or geographical boundaries

Continents and Oceans or

Countries of South America

Class activity:

The teacher issues a challenge to see if the class can recreate a map of (for instance) the continents and the oceans. Discussion and listing of the names of the continents and oceans on the board might follow. After all the names are listed, the teacher distributes the pieces of the puzzle to members of the class and instructs them to put them up on the board.

The complexity of the game increases by selecting more sophisticated maps.

Appendix 4

Lesson: Dynamics of International Relations (Changing Times/Changing Borders)

Some of the problems of international relations will be discussed ie, cultural barriers, competition for resources. Students will also explore traditional ways that nations have interacted. Establishing diplomatic ties, making alliances, and establishing mutually beneficial trading arrangements will be explored as relatively peaceful means of interaction. Wars of conquest or defense will be explored as an alternative to peace. Overview: Students will identify some fundamental activities of nations and explore political changes that occur over time. The idea is to show that international relations is often a dynamic process that frequently causes change and is a response to change.


Students will make a chart categorizing the activities of nations as either peaceful or non-peaceful.

By looking at political maps of a given region over time, students will observe examples of the changing political boundaries of a region over time. Students will list differences of names and boundaries for a given region over time

Materials:1. List of activities between nations, posterboard or chalkboard
2. Textbook

Procedure: 1.The teacher will ask the class to brainstorm a list of activities that a government carries out over the course of many years. The teacher will write responses up on the board. The teacher will ask students to then make a chart and classify the activities as either peaceful or non-peaceful activities.

2.The teacher will ask students to look at maps of Africa from two different eras and note the differences in political boundaries.

Ex.) African Societies 800-1500 p. 368 vs. Imperialism in Africa 1913 p. 688

World History Patterns of Interaction. McDougal Littell

Similar activities can be done for Europe, Asia, and North and South America

For additional maps for comparison, an excellent resource for on-line maps is the University of Texas Library go to: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/

Appendix 5

Lesson: United Nations’ “Cyberschoolbus” Virtual Tour

Overview: Students will gain knowledge of the UN through exploring the UN Cyberschoolbus website.

Objective: Students will list and describe the major bodies of the UN

Materials Needed: School Media Lab, Guiding Question Bank

Website: http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/res.html

Procedure: The teacher can prompt the class about what to look for before attending the computer lab by printing and reproducing the homepage of the cyberschoolbus site. Another option is to walk the class through the site in the classroom online and projection resources are available. Once in the lab, students should make notes in their notebooks of important points from the virtual tour.

Class Activity: Other activities can be found on the cyberschoolbus web site. Current events and issues are posted. Even trivia type games are hosted by the site (ie. flag tag)

Appendix 6

Lesson: Acronymity


This lesson will familiarize students with some of the many acronyms associated with organizations and operations of the United Nations.


Students will associate acronyms with their meaning orally and in writing.

Suggested Materials:

1.Abbreviations and Acronyms Worksheet: (Source Clements and Wilson p.x-xi)

2. Access to media center

Suggested sites: www.un.org,


Students will read a list of acronyms for organizations and operations associated with the UN.
Students will be asked to speculate which acronyms stand for peacekeeping missions, conferences, organizations, or other.
Students will be assigned three acronyms to research in the library media center. Students will write a 1-2 paragraph description of each acronym and report this information to the class.

Examples: UNPROFORUnited Nations Protection Force (former Yugoslovia)
UNSCUnited Nations Security Council
UNESCOUnited Nations Economic, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNOSOMUnited Nations Operation Force in Somalia
UNSCOMUnited Nations Special Commission (Iraq)
ONUCUnited Nations Operation in the Congo
UNIIMOGUnited Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

Appendix 7

Lesson: Investigating Peacekeeping Operations

Overview: Students will investigate the history of the UN peacekeeping role.

Objectives: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping operations in the Balkans, parts of Africa, and the Middle East.

Students will record notes on an overview of UN Peacekeeping Operations.
Students will examine a case study of one UN Peacekeeping Operation.
Students will record a chronology of conflict in the region in question
Students will record UN responses to the conflict

Students will be organized into small groups and randomly assigned a UN peacekeeping operation to investigate. Students will report their findings to the class. Instructions for this project are included as Instructions: Peacekeeping

Materials: A general chronology and description of UN peacekeeping operations. Specific background notes on one UN peacekeeping operation.

Suggested sources:

Selected Readings such as Tables 2-6, Introduction/Conclusion, Chapters of choice, from Hill, Stephen M. & Malik, Shahin P. (1996) Peacekeeping and the United Nations
2.UN Peacekeeping home page: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/home_bottom.htm

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Instructions: Peacekeeping

Your group will be investigating a peacekeeping operation carried out by the United Nations. It will be the job of your group to sufficiently outline and explain the fundamental mission of the UN. Moreover, your group is responsible for outlining the successes and drawbacks of the mission. Each member of the group will have a role in gathering the information, preparing the information for presentation, and presenting the information to the class.

Step One: Gathering Information

Each group member will be responsible for locating and summarizing two articles about this operation.

Also, the following roles will also be assigned:

Geographer: The geographer will construct a map of the region in question. Points of interest will include:

Political boundaries
Rivers/Lakes/Bodies of Water
Major Cities/Towns
Representation of the conflicting parties and the UN Peacekeepers

Fact finders: Fact finders will investigate the political history of the area of study and the history of the UN involvement.


These fact finders will outline the political history of the region in question and the history of the conflicting parties involved. The historian(s) should include a description of the culture of each conflicting party (language, nationality, type of government, type of economy).

Related to UN Involvement

These fact finders will summarize the history of UN involvement and give detailed information about 3-5 significant developments that transpire in this operation

All groups will present their findings to the class. As students listen to each presentation, they will record commentary on whether they feel the operation was a success. The teacher will evaluate student’s commentary for assessment and feedback.

Appendix 8

Lesson: Letters from Peacekeepers

Overview: Students will analyze letters written by peacekeepers in the field. Students will be asked to identify the conditions that soldiers are working under, the attitudes of soldiers toward their duty, descriptions of duty, and description of purpose.


Students will read letters from Eyewitness to Peace: Letters from Canadian Peacekeepers.

Students will discuss orally and write responses to questions about the soldier’s working conditions, descriptions of duty, description of purpose, and attitudes.

Materials Needed:

1.Excerpts from letters in Eyewitness To Peace
2.Question Bank

1.Teacher might start by showing a picture of a peacekeeping soldier. Teacher may ask students to discuss what the students see in the photograph and discuss what the daily life of a soldier might be. Students will offer responses.

2. Students will receive a worksheet with questions about the letters. Excerpts of letters will be read in class. Students will be encouraged to write down their observations on the worksheet. Students will be invited to discuss responses.

3. Students may be asked to write a hypothetical letter to a peacekeeper asking him or her questions about what he or she does.

Sample Question Bank

What role does the author have in the peacekeeping process?

Does the author of the letter appear to believe in his mission?

What responsibilities does this peacekeeper have?

What positive and negative implications does the author make about what he or she is witnessing?

Appendix 9:

Lesson: Model UN Simulation

Overview Students will study and set up a limited model UN and address an important global issue. Students will gather information for this activity from on line and printed material. Creating and sending a delegation to a local model UN conference for high school students may be the culminating activity of the unit.

Objective: Students will study and set up a limited model UN and address an important global issue. Students will gather information for this activity from on-line and printed material.

Materials Needed:

1.Cyberschoolbus guide to setting up and participating in a model UN: http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/modelun_new/over.html

2. List of model UN sites:

a. www.scsy.org Yale Model UN Conference Site
b. others are included in the unit bibliography

Procedure: Organize the class into delegates who represent different interests on a controversial issue such as stopping the fighting in the Middle East or Bosnia. Provide a general outline of the perspective that each delegate should take. However, allow the delegates opportunity to research information about the issue at hand. Call an assembly of the delegates and allow delegates to openly speak in turn about his or her perspective. After all delegates have spoken and after the teacher feels that adequate coverage has been given to the issue, have the delegates vote on a resolution and develop a plan of implementation.

To participate in a model UN conference:

Refer to the guidelines in the Cyberschoolbus site.
Locate and contact a conference leader in your area
Register for the conference by the suggested registration dates
Organize the students into the awarded delegation assignment.
Complete preparation work in time for the conference.

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1. Beck, Roger, Black, Linda, Krieger, Larry et al. (1999) World HistoryPatterns of Interaction. Boston: McDougal Littell. p. 1018

2. Beck, Roger, Black, Linda, Krieger, Larry et al. (1999) World HistoryPatterns of Interaction. Boston: McDougal Littell. p.1029

3. Webster’s Dictionary. (1986) Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers p.3.

4. (1998) Conflict Resolution: High School Curriculum Student Workbook for New Haven Public Schools Social development Program San Francisco: Community Boards p74

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Bibliography for Teachers


Beck, Roger, Black, Linda, Krieger, Larry et al. (1999) World HistoryPatterns of Interaction. Boston: McDougal Littell

Clement, Kevin & Wilson, Christine. UN Peacekeeping At The Crossroads. Canberra, ACT: Peace Research Centre

Dobler,Lavinia. (1963) Arrow Book of the United Nations. New York: The Four Winds Press

Durch, William, ed., (1996) Peacekeeping, American Policy, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990’s. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press

Gaffen, Fred. (1987) In The Eye of The Storm: A History of Canadian Peacekeeping. Toronto: Deneau and Wayne

Hill, Stephen M. & Malik, Shahin P. (1996) Peacekeeping and the United Nations

*Greene, Carol. (1983) United Nations.Chicago: Children’s Press.

“Legacy and Lessons” UN Chronicle Spring 2000 v37 p4

Liu, F.T. (1992) United Nations Peacekeeping and the Non-Use Of Force. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers

McCourbey, Hilaire & White, Nigel. (1996) The Blue Helmets: Legal Regulation Of United Nations Military Operations. Brookfield, Vermont: Dartmouth Publishing Company

Rikhye, Indar Jit & Skejelsbaek. (1990) The United Nations and Peacekeeping: Results, Limitations and Prospects: The Lessons of 40 Years of Experience Houndmills, England: MacMillan

Savage, Katherine. (1962). The Story of the United Nations. New York: Henry Z. Walck Incorporated Chaps 1-2

Shaw, Mark & Cilliers, Jakkie. (1995) South Africa and Peacekeeping in Africa Vol.1 South Africa: Institute of Defence Policy

Skold, Nils. (1996) United Nations Peacekeeping After The Suez War . New York: St. Martin’s Press

Snailham, Jane. (1998) Eyewitnesses To Peace. Letters from Canadian Peacekeepers. Toronto: The Canadian Peacekeeping Press

Webster’s Dictionary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers

World Book Encyclopedia. (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 2002) Volume U, p.76-97

Woods, Harold & Woods, Geraldine. (1985) The United Nations . New York: Franklin Watts: A Grolier Company

*Large print basic level for use with readers below grade level


No Man’s Land. Dir. Simon Callow. With Branko Djuric and Rene Bitorajac 2001


The American Century ABC News/Peter Jennings 2000

Websites for Reference:

www.freedomhouse.org Freedomhouse publishes reports about the political status of countries from around the world.

http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html The CIA World Fact Book gives detailed factual information about every country known.

www.scsy.org Yale UN Simulation Conference

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1982pf.htm Like the CIA World Fact Book, this United States Government publication gives detailed demographic information for every country on record with the U.S. Government. It has more narrative political history than the CIA Fact Book.

http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/modelun_new/over.html A guide to looking for, applying to, and preparing for a high school Model UN

http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/home_bottom.htm United Nations Web site for Peacekeeping Operations. Dates of Operations, Locations, Narrative descriptions of operations

http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/ Educational interactive information about the UN

http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/res.html Educational Publications from the UN

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ Want to see a map? Chances are it is here- online.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A21538-2002Jul3 The Washington Post On-line is free. At the bottom of the page you can access articles about a country by typing in the name of the country and pressing enter.

Model United Nations Clubs

AMUN - Americas Model United Nations www.amun.brasilia.nom.br

COWAC - The Council on World Affairs of Canada www.cowac.org

The Ivy League Model United Nations Conference (ILMUNC) www.ilmunc.org

University of California at Berkeley Model United Nations (UCBMUN) www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~ucbmun/

University of Michigan Model United Nations www.ummun.org

McGill Model United Nations www.mcmun.org

University of Florida Model United Nations Club http://grove.ufl.edu/~ufmun/

University of Pennsylvania Model United Nations www.upmunc.org

National Model United Nations www.nmun.org

The Hague International Model United Nations www.thimun.org

Houston Area Model United Nations (HAMUN) www.hamun.org

United Nations Youth Association of Australia www.unya.asn.au/

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Student Reading List

Dobler,Lavinia. (1963) Arrow Book of the United Nations. New York: The Four Winds Press

*Greene, Carol. (1983) United Nations.Chicago: Children’s Press.

“Legacy and Lessons” UN Chronicle Spring 2000 v37 p4

Savage, Katherine. (1962). The Story of the United Nations. New York: Henry Z. Walck Incorporated Chaps 1-2

Snailham, Jane. (1998) Eyewitnesses To Peace. Letters from Canadian Peacekeepers. Toronto: The Canadian Peacekeeping Press

“Truman Closes United Nations Conference With Plea To Translate Charter Into Deeds” The New York Times 27 June 1945 A1

World Book Encyclopedia. (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 2002) Volume U, p.76-97

Woods, Harold & Woods, Geraldine. (1985) The United Nations . New York: Franklin Watts: A Grolier Company

*Large print basic level for use with readers below grade level


No Man’s Land. Dir. Simon Callow. With Branko Djuric and Rene Bitorajac 2001


The American Century ABC News/Peter Jennings 2000


The school media lab will be used to access UN web sites and complete the UN virtual tour activities and possibly to complete research. A list and description of websites is included in the teacher’s bibliography.


Thank you to Prof. Bruce Russett and members of the “War and Peace” Seminar.

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