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Blacks and Latinos: A Linked Journey

Jean Capacetti

Contents of Curriculum Unit 13.02.01:

To Guide Entry


Why should a young high school student be interested in learning Spanish? This is a question that I have been struggling with for some time. My short answer has always been: building connections between communities will always be greatly beneficial to them. In my head this makes perfect sense, however, my students need more convincing. I have exposed them to different aspects of Latino culture and attempted to show them interesting things to get them engaged, but this only works about half the time. This unit has been designed to spark a deep interest in the language right at the beginning of their time in Spanish class. This is accomplished by exposing students to many of the links that are shared between the African Americans and Latinos in the United States.

This unit will have three major goals for students. First, initiate a sincere interest in learning Spanish. Second, change the social relations between African American students and Latino students at Hyde from one of tension to one of understanding and unity. The differences between the cultures do exist, so the unity will come from accepting differences and building connections. Finally, to facilitate a new understanding of their own history (African-American) and the history of the people whose language they will eventually learn through a series of case studies based on sports, music, and the migratory history of New Haven. One of the major misconceptions about the Latino community (among the young African American community in New Haven) is that Latino means Mexican or Puerto Rican. However, Latino is also an extremely broad category that also includes Afro-Caribbean populations from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Cuba, etc. In other words, this unit also has the promise of helping students rethink these categories of ĞAfrican American» and ĞLatino». This would help them to rethink what might seem to be rigid divisions between the Latino culture/race and African American culture/race.

Creating interest in content is a challenge for any teacher in any subject. For Spanish in particular, while some students are naturally inclined and see the inherent value in learning a language in addition to English, most students from urban areas struggle to see the significance of learning another language. Many students who grow up in New Haven are constantly bombarded with stereotypical images of Latinos and the Latino community. This is evident when students ask me "Are you Mexican or Puerto Rican?" rather than asking "Where are you from?" I conducted a poll when I began thinking about this unit. I asked students in Spanish class and not in Spanish class, "Where do Latinos live?" I got two answers: Mexico and Fair Haven. While this is very frustrating, the students themselves are not to blame for this. I believe that once they have a more concrete understanding of these groups' migration and cultural histories they will become more engaged in class and in their community on a regular basis. Throughout the unit they will get a chance to ask questions about the cultures each student represents.

The majority of the population at Hyde School of Health Sciences and Sports Medicine is African American and Latino, and mostly male. Students tend to self segregate when convening in common places like the cafeteria or the library for meetings. Most arguments and physical altercations have some racial tension behind them. This comes from a lack of understanding from both groups. Both groups believe and perpetuate the stereotypes that are presented to them on a daily basis. The different case studies presented in the unit will help to discredit many of these stereotypes. By presenting examples of similarities between the two cultures students will realize they are not quite as different as they originally imagined. By also discussing the differences that do exist and the reasons they exist, students will be able to accept differences and embrace similarities.

I have spent several weeks asking students where they come from. Most were born in New Haven and have never gotten the chance to explore the country or the world. Many students have families that came from other places like New York or Virginia, but very few students were able to explain the reasons behind why their family made the choice to move to New Haven. If students have a better understanding of their own history, they will have more of an appreciation for others histories.

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Hyde Spanish Curriculum

At the Hyde School of Health Sciences and Sports Medicine we offer three Spanish courses. Spanish 1 and Spanish 2 are the more traditional Spanish courses with Health Science units embedded within while the third course is Spanish Medical Terminology.

Spanish 1 begins by focusing on basics such as: numbers, telling time, greeting people, and identifying body parts, as well as introducing the students to the different Spanish speaking countries across the Americas and Europe. Soon after in the second quarter, the focus turns to phrases such as the types of things one likes to do and describing personality traits of friends. The second quarter ends with students being able to describe their school day, including their entire schedule, as well as their feelings about particular classes that they take. The second half of the year focuses on two things; first, the ability to identify foods, the ability to describe what foods are healthy and which are not and how to order food at a restaurant. Finally, the focus turns to the students' families and being able to describe them with some detail. Grammatically students learn how to conjugate verbs in the present tense and they learn how to use pronouns with some degree of accuracy.

Spanish 2 focuses much more on grammar while building vocabulary and using the vocabulary from Spanish 1. The main focus of the first half of the year is to introduce the various versions of past tense. In Spanish these conjugations differ much more than in English so it can be challenging for many students. The second half of the year focuses on introducing the future tense. By the end of the year students should be able to create narratives about what has happened and also make predictions about what is going to happen.

Every course at the Hyde School of Health Sciences and Sports medicine must have a certain amount of dosage of Health Sciences and Sports Medicine curriculum embedded within them. As a Spanish teacher whose curriculum comes pre-determined this can be a daunting task at times. In both Spanish 1 and Spanish 2 there is a unit on food. In this particular unit I include vocabulary about calorie intake and healthy choices. Topics like these are easy to incorporate; however when I get to the clothing unit in Spanish 2 for example, including health science curriculum without over stretching becomes increasingly difficult.

Spanish Medical Terminology is a new course at Hyde. It is a class designed for students who have excelled in Spanish 1 and 2 and is considered an honors class. There are 6 units in Spanish Medical Terminology including; Nutrition, Anatomy, Emergency Situations, At the Hospital, Health Careers, and Healthcare Systems around the Hispanic World. Each unit focuses on expanding the vocabulary of each student and learning phrases from the perspective of a healthcare professional as well as from the perspective of a patient or victim. For students who qualify, they will take an exam at the end of the year that will get them HIPAA (The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) certified. This will allow them to volunteer at hospitals and clinics and practice their Spanish with patients who have trouble speaking English. This can lead to volunteer and job opportunities. The difficulty of this course discourages many students from taking it. This introductory unit is designed to encourage students from Spanish one to become more interested in the language so that by the time they enter Spanish Medical Terminology they are committed and willing to put in the extra effort.

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Content Objectives

The New Haven Board of Education employs the ACTFL National standards for foreign language. The ACTFL National standards use the five C's, which are: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. This unit, Blacks and Latinos: A Linked Journey focuses on Culture, Connections, and Communities. As an introductory unit the focus will be on creating connections and making comparisons among different cultures to get students to want to learn the Spanish language.

The majority of the students in my Spanish class are African American and have never left New Haven, therefore they have a very simple and sometimes misguided understanding of their own history and culture, much less the history and culture of different groups of people, in particular the Latino community which is also very prevalent in New Haven. This is the impetus for the unit being presented. The Learning Targets are all designed to further the students' understanding of varying Latino cultures in the United States.

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The Learning Targets

Each learning target has been carefully worded to align with one or more of the National ACTFL Standards. The following is a list of each target with a description of how they align with the standards and what strategies will be in place to meet the learning target.

Target 1: I can discuss the Puerto Rican Diaspora of the 1900's and compare and contrast to the Great Migration of the African Americans.

Target 2: I can discuss the intricacies of racial dynamics in baseball before 1947.

Discussing the history of migration of the Puerto Rican community and comparing it to the Great Migration northward of the African American community can be a tricky thing. Race and ethnicity and the definitions of these words play an integral role in understanding the reasons why things happened the way they did. The history behind these linked histories really starts with early white European immigrants from the 19th century. The word ethnic was used to describe the cultural differences between the Italians, Irish, and Germans who were coming to New York. Neighborhoods for each group eventually formed which separated each group, allowing them to hold onto much of their culture. In the late 1960's ethnicity changed from meaning cultural difference, to meaning race, which changed the dynamic of racial policies in the years to come.

While Puerto Ricans and African Americans have been a part of New York since the 1800's, it was two major events that propelled a mass migration to the city. The Immigration Act of 1924,designed to prevent any further immigration from Europe and Asia, coupled with the end of the wartime economy meant that there were labor shortages everywhere. The Department of Labor began recruiting low skilled African Americans and Puerto Ricans to fill manufacturing jobs. This double Diaspora created an interesting dynamic between these two groups. They often ended up living in the same areas and working the same low skill, low pay jobs.

Although very culturally and racially different, African Americans and Puerto Ricans were treated the same by white society. Both were considered colored. This created tension because Puerto Ricans as well as other people from Spanish speaking countries have their own racial and cultural identity. In the postwar period, many people were confusing Puerto Ricans with "Negro" or African Americans coming from the south. In many cases, it was not confusion but just a lack of caring to distinguish between these two groups. In the early 1900's the one-drop rule was in effect, where if you had "one drop" of black in you, you were considered colored and didn't have equal rights to whites.

As these two groups of people migrated to New York, they were coming to a place where there were already several different migrant communities, including the Irish, Italians, Germans, and many others who had gone through the same kinds of struggles when they first arrived. One of the main things that children did for entertainment was to play sports. Sports became a very important part of the culture as a means of entertainment and income for those athletes who were good enough. The same holds true for the African American and Latino communities. In 1947 the color barrier was broken in Major League Baseball but Latinos and African Americans had been playing professionally in the Negro Leagues as early as 1906.

Latinos have a unique colonial history. During the colonization of South America and the Caribbean there was a lot of mixing of races. The result is a racially and culturally diverse group of people that all fall under the same umbrella of Latino. This is important for understanding the dynamics of Latinos in baseball in the early twentieth century because in New York there were Latinos that were from Cuba, who have a mostly Spanish ancestry and could be considered white because of their light skin complexion, and there were also Puerto Ricans, who tend to have a wider range of skin complexions who could not be considered white. The result was that some players who were good enough and "white" ended up playing in the Majors while the rest played in the Negro Leagues, which began to include Latino teams like the Cuban Stars.

As the whites were playing in the majors, African Americans and Latinos played together all over the country. There were African Americans and Latinos in the Negro Leagues in North America as well as the Caribbean Leagues. Baseball was truly a uniting force for these two migratory Diasporas, despite differences creating tensions between the groups more often than not.

One of the main differences that African American players and Latino players had to overcome was the language barrier. Even today, in the twenty-first, language is a barrier among different racial groups in the US. Back in the 1930's and beyond, it was even worse. What began to happen then, and what happens now, is that all Latinos in baseball began to be grouped under one name; Cuban. One example of this was when Luis Olmo, the second Puerto Rican Major Leaguer, encountered this when a newspaper wrote about him in an article while he was playing in the minor leagues, "Roberto Olmo, 21-year old Cuban out-fielder". This happened because Cubans "whiteness" allowed them to integrate into Major Leagues decades before any other Latino group. Newspapers and other media were used to referring to any Latino sounding last name like Rodriguez, Rivera, or Olmo as Cuban since they were they only sub-group that was allowed to play. This had many negative consequences for the Latino community. It cast a shadow on many of the struggles that poor Puerto Ricans and other Latino sub-groups were going through in the time period in New York.

Baseball was changing the times. Although racism and segregation was still institutional, the trends in the Negro Leagues and Caribbean Leagues began to open the eyes of many important people. Both the African American and Latino communities used baseball as a way to persevere. Players pushing through boundaries were inspiring fans to do the same, and in 1947, Branch Rickey would give a man the chance to change America.

Target 3: I can discuss and analyze the career of MLB player Roberto Clemente in the context of the time period.

Target 4: I can discuss and analyze the career of MLB player Jackie Robinson in the context of the time period.

Jackie Robinson was born on January 31, 1919 and went on to become the first African American baseball player to play in Major League Baseball. He made his debut in 1947. Similar to Clemente, he stayed with the same team for the entirety of his career, and went on to help the Brooklyn Dodgers win the World Series in 1955. As the first African American player in the professional sport he had to deal with an unlimited amount of discrimination and scrutiny. However, his success in the league would pave the way for players like Roberto Clemente.

The story of Jackie Robinson really begins with a man named Branch Rickey. In the 1940's Mr. Rickey was the President of the Brooklyn Dodgers, and he was very interested in recruiting Robinson to play in the majors for his team. Racial segregation in baseball was indicative of where American society was at the time. Legal segregation and the lack of many rights prevented African Americans from having a strong voice. Mr. Rickey wanted to be a part of a change that would have come to America either way, and challenged Robinson to take on all the neigh Sayers by playing baseball and remaining silent. Robinson at first, felt as if he was being asked to take all of the insults, but Rickey saw the big picture and signed Robinson to the Dodgers. On April 15, 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first African American player to player in the Major Leagues.

The beginning of Jackie's career with the Dodgers was tumultuous to say the least. Not only did he endure constant racism from fans, other teams, and the media, but also his own teammates did not want to play with him, going as far as writing a petition to Mr. Rickey to either trade Robinson, or them. However, after showing his guts by not fighting back and playing good baseball like Mr. Rickey asked, his teammates began to support him. By the end of Robinson's first season, with all his success, two more African American players, Dan Bankhead and Larry Doby were signed to the Dodgers and the Cleveland Indians. Robinson changed the game of baseball forever.

Jackie Robinson played for ten full seasons. It is interesting to note that after his third year with the dodgers, Rickey told him that his time in silence was over. The trend of African American players in the Majors was one that wasn't going away. Robinson responded by excelling his play to another level and gracefully defending himself from the media when he had to. He retired in 1946 and was voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1961.

Roberto Clemente is perhaps the most famous and important athlete in the eyes of the Latino community. He was born on August 18, 1934 and debuted in the majors with the Pittsburg Pirates in 1955. He became popular among Americans during the 1960's and was the first Hispanic player to reach 3,000 hits. Sadly, he died in an airplane crash on New Year's Eve 1971 while flying supplies to Nicaragua after an earthquake there.

Even though Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball in 1947, by the time Clemente began playing there were still not very many Latino players in the majors. Before Robinson, the color barrier prevented players like Clemente who were dark skinned from playing in the majors. Most superstars played in their own countries or the Negro League. There were however a few instances where a Latino was light skinned enough to be considered white; like Adolfo Luque, who was born in Cuba and was a prominent pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds in the 1920's, but even then, the language barrier was still a major issue.

After Robinson broke the color barrier it was still a few years before players of color became commonplace. Clemente became one of the first major Latin-American superstars that pioneered the way for famous players of today like Alex Rodriguez, David Ortiz, and Robinson Cano. Like Robinson and other African American players of the time, Latin American players faced racial discrimination and harassment from fans, players, and the media. This however, came as a surprise to players like Clemente. Most Spanish speaking countries, and especially the Caribbean; Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Cubawere places where a sense of nationalism was more important than skin color. Although Puerto Ricans are of all different colors, there was little to no racial tension. This was a new challenge that Clemente had to overcome.

Clemente had another roadblock ahead of him that Robinson never had to endure, a language barrier. Clemente quickly realized that his teammates and coaches were not going to help him improve his English. He would have to do it on his own. One of the things that Clemente noticed early on was how the newspaper reporters covered him. Having not learned any English growing up, Clemente had to learn in public. Many times he was quoted in newspapers phonetically rather than what he was actually saying. For example, "I no play so gut yet. Me like hot weather, veree hot. I no run fast cold weather." Roberto knew many members of the media were mistreating him, but his response to them was, "Those reporters only know one language, I know good Spanish and my English is getting better everyday." With time Clemente conquered this road block as well. By the end of his career, his popularity with the entire nation prevented reporters from misquoting him.

Statistically, Roberto Clemente's career is legendary. He won twelve Gold Glove Awards, was in twelve All-Star games, and had the highest batting average in a season four times. In the last game of the 1972 regular season Clemente hit a double to become only the eleventh player in history to get three thousand hits. During the off-season on New Year's Eve he organized an effort to send supplies to Nicaragua, which had just suffered a massive earthquake. He was onboard to lead the group, but his plane crashed off the coast of Puerto Rico. Everyone on board was killed, Clemente's body was never found. Only a few days later, the Hall of Fame Induction committee voted unanimously to induct him into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Jackie Robinson and Roberto Clemente are arguably two of the most influential people to the African American and Latino communities. Not only were they top superstars in the sport of baseball, their contributions to society in the context of social justice were invaluable. The communities in New York, Chicago, and other places had men who looked like them and came from where they were and persevered and succeeded despite all of the discrimination of the first two-thirds of the twentieth century, especially in the case of Roberto Clemente who was killed so tragically, became an idol for the country of Puerto Rico. Today there are countless schools, scholarships, and programs named after him, even a school here in New Haven.

Once the students explore the careers of both men they will be asked to then compare and contrast Clemente's career with Jackie Robinson's. They will do this by writing a dialogue between the two men or writing a journal entry as one of the athletes. These pieces will then be shared with the class, and the best ones will be posted.

Target 5: I can discuss the differences of various styles of hip-hop from the late 20th century.

Target 6: I can identify different types of music including Salsa, Reggeaton, Hip-Hop etc.

To understand where popular music is today culturally amongst the youth in terms of the dynamic between "African American" Hip-hop and Latin Rap or Reggeaton we have to go back in time to the early 1970's. In an earlier section I wrote about the dynamics of the double Diaspora of the early twentieth century between African Americans and Latinos. Many of these people ended up living in the South Bronx, which is where the foundations of "Hip-Hop" began. Grafitti, DJing, and rhyming were all new forms of expression that were beginning to have pockets of popularity. Puerto Ricans and African Americans were the two groups that were championing this movement.

Even though Puerto Ricans were partly responsible for the creation of this new art form, they were quickly marginalized from being a part of "hip-hop". This can be understood through the context of their migration to New York City. Like African Americans, Puerto Ricans were part of the lowest earning labor force and had to deal with discriminations of all kinds. However, Puerto Ricans experienced a racial dynamic that African Americans did not. Puerto Ricans, as well as other Latino groups, are visually very multiracial. Skin tones ranging from snow white to very black made it difficult for society, which was still in the throws of the civil rights movement, to distinguish Puerto Ricans as white or black. Therefore they became this subgroup that, while different from African Americans in many ways, shared many social spaces, which lead to cultural unity sometimes, and tension others.

When Sugarhill Gang released their record "Rapper's Delight" in 1979, the musical genre was born. There were many Puerto Rican artists at the time that were becoming popular such as DJ Charlie Chase and The Real Roxanne in the early days. However, because the media was labeling this music as racially black, combined with the fact that many people who were not from the city did not or could not tell the difference between African Americans and Puerto Ricans, none of the Puerto Rican rap artists gained any real popularity. The rift became larger when lyrics of popular rap records dealt with very uniquely black issues and further separated rap from Puerto Ricans in the eyes of African Americans, Puerto Ricans and the media.

As the second generation of Nuyoricans got older, both groups marginalized them. Older Puerto Ricans felt they were letting their culture go, while they were still too different from African Americans to be considered African American or Black culturally or racially. The emergence of a new genre, created by young Latino artists, Freestyle, was a response to this marginalization. They wanted a cultural identity in the music business other than Spanish-language music i.e. Salsa. Freestyle sound, much like the group itself, had qualities that were similar to rap and others that were different. Lyrics focused on love and relationships, while rappers' lyrics were more about social issues. Freestyle would be popular for a time but it wasn't until the 1990's that Puerto Ricans would be accepted into the rap world.

While marginalization from both groups was a frustrating thing for second generation Puerto Ricans who wanted to be in the music industry, in the 1990's several new artist were discovered that took the best from Spanish language music ie. Salsa and the best from popular Hip-Hop and created a new style that would garner popularity in mainstream media. Reggeaton was born.

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Teaching Strategies

Exploring the Virtual Exhibition on Roberto Clemente

This will be a lesson in which students explore the website that has been created by the Smithsonian Institution to commemorate the life and career of Roberto Clemente. Here the students will get a chance to see many images and view a detailed time line of his life. The website will serve as a study guide for the students. After they explore and take notes there will be a Jeopardy activity where they will compete to answer trivia questions about Clemente. Some will also be in Spanish so they can continue to practice recognizing cognates and common words.

The Boxing Protocol and Self-Description

The Boxing Protocol is my go-to strategy when reading articles and comparing and contrasting topics. For comparing and contrasting Roberto Clemente and Jackie Robinson half the class will be given an article on Roberto Clemente published by the Smithsonian and a Robinson piece written by Larry Schwartz from ESPN. Each article goes over a brief biography and important events from each of their lives. Groups of five will be given a poster with an outer box, a middle box, and an inside box. The outer box is for things that the students already know before reading the article and questions that they may have about their particular athlete. The middle box is for things that the students learn while they are reading the article. The inside box is for writing a summary about the article. After the summaries are written, the posters will be shared with the class and similarities and differences will be discussed. For homework they will be assigned to look up a quick bio of any African American or Latino Baseball player. The next day we will focus on language and each student will learn how to introduce themselves as the players they looked up as well as describe one personality trait.

Giant Venn Diagram and Chalkboard Splash

One of the activities from the music section of the unit will be to fill out a giant Venn diagrams as a class. The first circle will represent Jazz and the second will represent Salsa. While the Jazz song is playing students will go up to the board and write in anything they notice about the music. The same will happen for the salsa song. Once they hear both, the students will discuss the differences and similarities and fill in the middle section together. Then they will follow the same process for Hip-Hop and Reggeaton. Then they will do a new diagram comparing the different eras of music.

Using Cognates to Translate Lyrics

In this activity students will listen to a Salsa/Reggaeton song and use the cognates they hear as well as context clues to translate the lyrics. They will each receive a copy of the lyrics in Spanish as well as a set of English lyrics that have been partially filled in. As a class with the instructor they will go through the song and translate each piece. After becoming comfortable with this, groups of five will get together and do the same activity with different songs. After that each group will present their song and how they translated it.

Comparing Musical Styles

To begin this case study students will be exposed to various songs from different artists. They will hear Hip Hop from Eminem and Jay Z, Reggeaton from Pit Bull and Daddy Yankee, Salsa from El Gran Combo and the Fania All-Stars, and Jazz from various artists of the twentieth century. Most students in New Haven listen to Hip Hop. They can tell you all of the popular artists and have most of their songs completely memorized. But do they know where Hip Hop came from? How did this form of music go from being an underground movement to the most popular music in the world? Most students who listen to Hip Hop have most likely heard some Reggeaton, but most also think of some type of tomato sauce when they here Salsa. Where did Reggeaton originate? Why is Salsa such an important part of the Latino culture? In this case study students will get a chance to do more research than in the previous case studies. They will be assigned to read chapter 8 from "Mambo Montage: The Latinization of New York" by Arlene Davila. Mambo Montage is a collection of essays about different aspects of the history of the Latino community in New York. This is a very unique reading that clearly shows the linked nature of the African American and Latino communities. Because students have more initial knowledge they will get to choose a song or artist they like and find a reggeaton or salsa artist to compare the careers and musical styles of each. The students will create Power Point presentations showing what they have learned. Each presentation will include an analysis and sound track of two songs, one from each genre.

Film Screening and Discussion

Towards the end of the unit students will be shown the documentary film "La Clave" which takes a look at the history of how Reggeaton became popular and how the musical style of Reggeaton compares to Salsa. Aligned with the film they will have a worksheet with questions about the film and also discussion questions to bring the conversation back to the historical context of Hip-Hop and Latinos in New York in the latter half of the twentieth century.

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Appendix A: Standards

Communicate in Languages other than English

- Standard 1.1:Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions
- Standard 1.2:Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics
- Standard 1.3:Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.

Gain Knowledge and Understanding of other Cultures

- Standard 2.1:Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied
- Standard 2.2:Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied

Connect with other disciplines and acquire information

- Standard 3.1:Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language
- Standard 3.2:Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures

Develop insight into the nature of Language and Culture

- Standard 4.1:Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own
- Standard 4.2:Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

Participate in Multilingual Communities at home and around the world

- Standard 5.1:Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting
- Standard 5.2:Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.

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Appendix B: Student Resources

La Clave. DVD. Directed by Mariella Sosa. Miami, Florida: MS Films, 2008.

La Clave is a musical documentary film about the similarities between two types of music genres known as Salsa and Reggaeton. In this film, Mariella Sosa has gathered the most popular stars of reggaeton as well as the old school greats of salsa. Sosa and Tejada have interviewed salsa icons such as Wilie Colon, Ruben Blades, Ismael Miranda, Gilberto Santa Rosa and on the reggaeton side they interviewed billboard chart topping artists such as Julio Voltio, Tego Calderon, and Hector "El Father" just to name a few. These artists all came together with the same purpose, to discuss how two different styles of music can have so much in common and how their music is all composed under "La Clave".

Smithsonian Institution. "Beyond Baseball: The Life of Roberto Clemente." Beyond

Baseball: The Life of Roberto Clemente. http://www.robertoclemente.si.edu/

(accessed June 21, 2013).

This website is dedicated to educating young people about the life and career of Roberto Clemente. It will be used as a teaching tool in Spanish class. It includes lessons designed for middle school students who are interested in learning about the subject. It is available in English and Spanish.

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Appendix C: Bibliography

Maraniss, David. "Roberto Clemente: The King of Béisbol | History & Archaeology |

Smithsonian Magazine." History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places |

Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Roberto-Clemente-The-King-of-Beisbol.html (accessed July 24, 2013).

This is an article by David Maraniss that tells a few anecdotes of Clemente's life; the details of his death, and why his helmet is an important piece of history.

Martinez, David. True Heroes of Baseball The Stories of Jackie Robinson and Roberto

Clemente . Amazon Digital Services, Inc.: Homerunweb books, 2011.

In True Heroes of Baseball David Martinez explores the lives and careers of Jackie Robinson and Roberto Clemente. Both of these influential figures help to change and shape the history of Major League Baseball and American Society. Jackie Robinson, with the help of Brooklyn Dodgers manager Branch Rickey became the first African American to be signed by a Major League organization. Roberto Clemente became the first Latin American player to be inducted into the Hall of Fame. This books explores these men, their lives, and the legacy they left behind.

Mambo montage the Latinization of New York. New York: Columbia University Press,


Mambo Montage is a collection of articles by several authors that describe and explain the history of the latinization on New York City through different lenses. In particular for this unit chapter 2 which deals with the culture of Latino baseball in the early 1900's, chapter 3 which deals with the migratory Diaspora of Puerto Ricans to New York compared to that of the African American community, and chapter 8 which deals with the marginalization of Puerto Ricans from hip-hop in the 1970's and 1980's.

Nasaw, David. "At Play in the City." In Children of the city: at work and at play. Garden

City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985. 17-38.

Children of the City focuses on the history of children growing up in New York City in the early twentieth century. The importance of sports to migrant communities has been very apparent throughout history and it is important to be able to compare and contrast with other groups and time periods.

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