This unit is designed to encourage students to consider the importance of recognizing the roots of conflict. Conflict is the collision between two or more ideas. This can involve topics as diverse as religion, land and political boundaries, to who has control over the TV remote -me or my brother. At the root of all conflict is the construct of identity. Identity is a concept that classifies people into categories of "otherness". In our society (the United States) there are seven socially and politically relevant categories of identity classification: a person's age, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, and mental or physical ability.(2) In American society these classifications determine how a person or a group of people are viewed and contributes in creating a power dynamic between those who are "Insiders" (the dominant identity) versus those who are "Outsiders" (the marginalized identity). To explore the impact of identity in events of human conflict requires an understanding of the historical roots of identity within certain societies. Therefore students will conduct case studies to learn how and where instances of social constructs work to further entrench the dichotomy of "Insider-Outsider" identities within socially produced hierarchies. Through readings, films, art, and music students will participate in discourse that encourages them to make cross-cultural connections between two occurrences of anti-gay discriminatory government policy implemented during times of war: the Holocaust in Nazi Germany and anti-gay policy throughout American society in these Post September 11th years.
The essential question that students will be called upon to consider is: How does identity contribute to instances of conflict? Within the context of this question students will analyze the factors that go into creating conflict in order to spark awareness to issues current to our society. Amongst these factors are: nationalism, propaganda and fear tactics, an ongoing history of discrimination in our society and world, the impact of the media, and the resulting violence that targets marginalized people in society. Further questions that the students will evaluate throughout the unit are: What factors construct the way we perceive identity? What is conflict? Why does conflict occur? How and why do institutions (i.e. government, religions etc…) promote divisions in society between "Insiders and Outsiders"? What is meant by "Insider/Outsider" identity roles? Who assigns "Insider/Outsider" roles? Who are Americas' "Outsiders" and do they change over time? How do these societal divisions lead to discriminatory government policy? How do discriminatory government policies lead to further societal divisions? In what way do these divisions create an atmosphere of fear and violence amongst members of marginalized groups?
The unit discusses the concepts of Nationalism and Discrimination. Nationalism is an ideology that unifies citizens within a nation based on their national and ethnic identity. Often the citizens of a nation share common moral values about how people should think and behave. Within a nation there is a political culture, an amalgamation of values and practices focusing on the relationship between citizens and their government.(3) Throughout history the promotion of nationalism has been a political tactic by governments to unify a nation during times of war or government instability. Nationalism can produce unity in times of desperation but is also capable of fostering Insider/Outsider identity roles, either within a nation or against a rival nation-state.
Throughout history one's devotion to nation has lead to conflict. Some examples of nationalism that the students have studied in this 9th grade world history class are the Arab/Israeli conflict and the Northern Ireland conflict.
Discrimination is the behavioral application of prejudice on both the individual and institutional levels.(4)
Whether it is a hate crime or discriminatory government policy against an individual or an entire group of people based on their identity, discrimination has always been a cause for conflict. In approaching these complex ideas, the lessons of the unit will allow the students to consider their own identities, their own experiences with discrimination, conflict, and violence. Additionally, I will refer to past examples from history units that we have studied together. By revealing instances of "Insider/Outsider" identity throughout history students can then become historical detectives on a mission to track an understanding of how identity contributes to instances of conflict.
The unit goals are reflective of the overall concepts of the New Haven Public Schools World History curriculum standards
Therefore, the objectives for this unit are for students to make personal connections to global and social issues, recognize trends in history such as the causes for conflict, prejudice, and discrimination, and ultimately, have the incentive to think conceptually, and to speak and write coherently about social issues. In the 9th grade students are to develop analytical thinking skills, writing skills, and recognize patterns in history. Additionally, the
Anatomy of Your Enemy
unit will be taught in the historical context of a post World War One world. It is essential that students have background knowledge of the world during these years. The following portion of the unit will provide this background knowledge.
How did the Holocaust come about?
In order to begin to understand the Holocaust it is important to evaluate the context in which this event emerged. To begin to grasp how millions of people were killed during the Nazi Regime is overwhelming and hard to imagine. Even more overwhelming is how to approach teaching the Holocaust to our students. I believe that by evaluating the world environment post World War I and more specifically, the case of Germany, we can begin to find some answers. So then let me take you all the way back to the first Great War.
Total war is when a war consumes the entire world. Some characteristics of Total war are the introduction of military technology, involving all regions of the world, impacting soldiers and civilians, influencing government policy, causing changes in economies, debt, destruction, and a legacy that will impact all future generations of the world. World War One had all of these characteristics. The First World War introduced tanks, submarines, planes, machine guns, and poisonous gas. This war was unique, because it was the first truly global war the world had ever seen. As European nations competed to become world super powers much of the fighting took place in those African colonies controlled by warring European nations. During World War One about 30 million people died, of which 20 million were civilians. As nations competed for power governments became focused on winning the war, which can be seen in government policies developed during this time. In the United States, the government limited individual freedoms by implementing the Sedition and Espionage Acts. Because the US was at war with Germany, teaching German in public schools throughout the US became illegal.(5) The war effort was further encouraged by increased military spending on new technologies; this lead to increased debt for the opposing nations during the postwar years. During this time factories in the United States saw an increase in profits as they supplied weapons for both the Allied and the Central powers. The financial cost of the First World War was an estimated 200 million dollars in destruction.
After the war, the United States led the world powers in outlining plans for peace and prevention of future wars. The Versailles Treaty assigned Germany sole responsibility for initiating World War One. As a result, the victorious nations repossessed German colonies and protectorates in Africa and in the Pacific. Additionally, the iron rich region of Alsace Lorraine was given to France. This treaty also established a War Guilt clause that required Germany to pay reparations to European nations in the years after the war. In addition to these costs, Germany had lost two million young men to the war, and this lack of manpower made it difficult to bring life back into German factories in the post war years.(6)
After the war Europe was plagued with war debt and destruction. Many nations such as Germany attempted to establish democratic governments. The new German government was called the Weimar Republic. The Republic did not have much citizen support and many disagreed with the new liberal government for the signing the Treaty of Versailles, because it had placed Germany as the instigator of World War One.
During the 1920s, American investors aided in rebuilding European nations. By supplying loans investors contributed to rebuilding European industries. These American loans created an economic dependency between European nations and the United States. This dependency was demonstrated in the Dawes Plan, where Germany received 20 million dollars from US investors in order to rebuild their economy. When the United States stock market crashed in 1929 the United States entered a time of economic depression; caused by overproduction, unemployment, and an unequal distribution of wealth. In reaction to the crash of 1929, American investors turned to European nations in order to collect on their post World War One loans. This collection of loans forced European nations into a time of debt. European nations followed the US into a Global Depression.(7) So here we are, in post WWI Germany with two million young men dead, inflation, war debt and reparations, and the United States collecting on their loans.
Germany was ripe for the powerful voice of a nationalistic leader such as Hitler. By way of democratic election, in 1933, Hitler came into power of Germany. His regime would replace the Weimar Republic and as early as 1933 would begin to strike away at democratic freedoms of religion, speech, and the press. It was in this context that the Holocaust occurred. It is important to recognize that before Hitler came into power there was rampant anti-Semitism (the hatred of Jews) and anti-Liberalism (opposition to those who supported the Weimar Republic) within the National Socialist German Workers Party: (Nazi). Followers of this party believed that people of Aryan descent represented a superior race of people. A commonly held belief was that this superior group of Aryans should control all of Germany.(8) Many German and Nazi scholars began to apply the American science of Eugenics to their political ideologies. Eugenics means the science of race, and it promoted the idea that one race is superior to other races of people.(9) It is important for students to be informed that in the early part of the 20th century many American scientists and scholars developed the Eugenics movement, which Adolf Hitler (the future Furher of Germany) makes reference to in his book, Mein Kampf. Amongst the first of the persecuted minority groups targeted by this Nazi Regime as enemies of the state were "Outsiders," such as: the disabled, political opponents, and homosexuals.
Unknown to most people are the implications that the rise of the Nazi Regime had on the homosexual community in Germany. In Richard Plant's book, The Pink Triangle, the author writes that the majority of gay inmates were located at Buchenwald, a concentration camp in Germany. Under the Weimar Republic of the 1920s, Berlin was known for its openness towards sexual minorities. In 1914, there were said to be forty gay bars in the city of Berlin. The "liberal" Weimar Republic of the1920s allowed for a number of homosexual political associations to be established in Breslau, Frankfurt and many other large German cities. Throughout the 1930s, Nazi laws were passed to limit the freedoms of persecuted minorities. One example of this strategy can be the Nuremburg laws of 1935 that took citizenship away from German Jews. Likewise, during this time there were constant Nazi raids on the gay sections of cities such as Berlin. Nazi laws banned homosexual meeting places and eventually began to arrest and place homosexuals in concentration camps.
Most concentration camps were established after 1939. Prior to concentration camps, there were laws established to limit the freedoms of the previously cited persecuted minorities. These homosexuals were arrested under Paragraph 175 which states
"a male who indulges in criminally indecent activities with another male or who allows himself to participate in such activities will be punished with jail".
Paragraph 175 did not ban sexual acts between two women, SS officers raided lesbian bars and arrested these women for violation of the Nazi judicial code. These lesbians became prisoners. In 1975, Ina Kukuk published a series of accounts documenting the treatment of lesbian prisoners during the Holocaust. In these accounts lesbian Holocaust survivors spoke of the Gestapos' use of sexual violence in cellblocks. It is said that French and Russian POWs were promised a bottle of schnapps in reward for each woman they penetrated upon entering the camps, homosexual inmates were greeted with beatings and forced to shave all the hair off of their bodies. Once situated in camp life homosexuals were separated from all other groups of inmates and considered by the SS soldiers (Nazi Soldiers who worked in the camps) to be the lowest category of prisoners. Homosexuals were placed in special labor camps and many became objects for medical experimentation.(10)
The Holocaust Equation: Then and Now
So now you are wondering where the connection to the Holocaust is. The connection is based upon an equation that I created to use with my students: "The Holocaust Equation." Although the equation refers directly to the Holocaust this should not imply that it refers to the isolated incident known as the Holocaust. Though the "final solution" for the Holocaust resulted in genocide, the equation's result is not always one of genocide. Genocide is the deliberate, systematic policy to eliminate an entire racial, political, or cultural group of people.(11) Nonetheless, there are numerous examples of genocide throughout the 20th century that confirm the Holocaust Equation. Although each case, whether it is the Armenian genocide or the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda, has unique qualities such as the motivations of murdering or different regimes that perpetrate them, each instance of genocide does share some basic factors.(12) The equation suggests that in times of national instability the government will use tactics of nationalism to unify and strengthen the nation. The result is an atmosphere that thrives off of the persecution of minority groups. To introduce students to the equation I write it on the whiteboard: The Holocaust Equation is Government instability + Nationalism = Persecuted Minority groups (Outsiders). While evaluating each piece of the equation I ask students to make connections to instances in history where the Holocaust Equation has occurred. During this discussion I record student ideas on the white board. Usually the students offer examples that we have already studied such as the Armenian Genocide, Japanese Internment camps, or the Pogroms in Russia. I tell the students that the term genocide did not exist prior to the specific case of the Holocaust. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer recognized that there was not proficient language for discourse about these incidences. He believed that this lack of discourse would lead to the reoccurrence of acts of mass murder. He thought creating the term "genocide" would allow members of the global community to begin implementing laws of prevention. In 1943, Lemkin chose the term "genocide" from the Greek prefix genos meaning race and the Latin suffix cide meaning killing. It was Lemkin's term and definition that the United Nations used in its Genocide Convention of 1948. (13)
Is the Holocaust Equation an isolated incident?
If we take a closer look at American history it is possible that the US government has implemented tactics of nationalism during times of national instability and desperation. Perhaps you can recall the Japanese Internment Camps during WWII or the Black Listing during the Cold War. Now, I encourage you to take an even closer look and to recognize the presence of persecuted minority groups in America over the past four years since the September 11th attacks. A result of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon has been the implementation of government policies that limit democratic freedoms protected by the Bill of Rights. With your students you can discuss what is meant by democratic freedoms. Some discussion questions might be: What freedoms are protected in our Constitution? Should the government have the power to limit these freedoms? In what situation would it be justified for the government to suspend someone's civil rights? Has there ever been a group of people whose rights were not protected? Are there groups of people in America whose rights are currently not protected? This discussion can lead to a dialogue about the government's reaction to the September 11th terrorist attacks which resulted in the implementation of the Patriot Act in 2001.
The Patriot Act passed by Congress in 2001 was designed with the purpose of "uniting and strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism."(14) The atmosphere of post September 11th America has been one of a suffering economy, and a feeling of insecurity and fear among many American citizens. Additionally, it is a time of war. In March 2003 the United States declared war on Iraq. Many American citizens have family and friends fighting in America's War on Terrorism. The year is 2005 and a total of 1744American soldiers have lost their life for the War on Terrorism (as I write the number is growing).(15) The US military presence has sparked ongoing violence and civil war in Iraq, creating an atmosphere of malnutrition and illness. The result is an estimated 30,000 Iraqi deaths; it is the civilian population that has been mostly effected.(16)
As the US wages war in the age of global communications the government has placed restrictions on the freedom of the press. These restrictions influence the news coverage that informs American citizens about the events of the war.(17) Throughout world history the media has rallied citizen support for revolution and waging war. You can have students refer to their previous knowledge base by talking about other examples in history involving the power of the media. For example, it was the pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, "Common Sense" that sparked the American Revolution. It was "yellow" journalism that encouraged Americans to support the Spanish American War. In World War II it was the emotional "fireside" chats of FDR that motivated that American public to support the war effort. The media is a powerful tool that molds public opinion. When the government limits the freedom of press, the government filters information that is shared with the public. Therefore, citizens are denied information imperative in making decisions to either support or be against the war. In the 20th century nations have used the media as a method to promote nationalism. An example is the Nazi newspaper,
This newspaper was created to promote the anti-Semitic sentiment in Germany by presenting Jews as enemies of the state. During WWII both the Japanese and American media focused on winning the war by presenting propaganda as news. The media fostered citizen support for the war effort in both nations.(18)
In the post September 11th years, there are many Americans in support of measures taken by the US government to protect American citizens from terrorism. Nonetheless, there are other Americans who believe the Patriot Act allows for a government abuse of power by violating privacy rights and setting limits on the freedom of information, although these rights are implied and protected by the Bill of Rights.(19)
In the days, weeks, months, and years since the September 11th attacks the environment of America has been both one of patriotism and of skepticism, a time of pro-America bumper stickers and anti-war demonstrations. These years since the attacks have emphasized the Insider-Outsider binary in America. In this time of war, the Holocaust Equation has been set into motion. As we have seen throughout history, when there is an unstable nation and the use of nationalism is promoted by the government as a means to unify the nation there will always be persecuted minority groups whose freedoms are infringed upon. You can further explore the use of nationalistic tactics by having your students read President Bush's, "Address to the Nation" which was delivered to the American public nine days after the terrorist attacks. In this speech the President tells the nation and the world, "either you are with us or you are with the terrorists." Throughout the speech President Bush uses G-D and nation to unify Americans. He instructs Americans to "uphold the values of America." In his address the President establishes an Us versus Them ideology by categorizing the terrorists as "enemies of freedom" and "enemies of America."(20) This speech is a successful example of the use of nationalism in building a common enemy and ultimately promoting American citizenry support to go to war. This is the environment of post September 11th America.
Who are the American Outsiders?
Depending on the period you are studying you will find that there is a wide range of American Outsiders. Throughout United States history, Outsider identity has been based on categories of identification such as: race, political ideology, economic class, gender, religion, ethnicity, mental/ physical disability, and sexual orientation. Refer to the prior content knowledge of your students when demonstrating Insider-Outsider relationships within the United States. In a world history course students will be familiar with examples such as: The European tactics of assimilating the Native Americans; The role of Slavery in reinforcing the division between Whites and Blacks; The women's suffrage movement; or the implications of the Asian exclusion laws of 1882.
America is a Christian nation. In fact, one of the first structures built on American soil by Columbus and the Spanish conquistadors was a Catholic Church. Beginning with the European invasion, leading to the creation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, and into the rise of Fundamentalism at the turn of the 20th century; Christianity has played a vital role in building America. Our laws and values are based upon a largely Judeo-Christian tradition. American principles about marriage, divorce, abortion, sexuality, and gender roles are rooted in this Judeo-Christian tradition. Reflect back on President Bush's,
Address to the Nation
, you will find that during this time of national crisis, the President attempts to create a sense of place for all Americans to relate to. The President brings comfort to a nation by speaking of values that most Americans find familiar such as: freedom, progress, and prayer.(21) Once again Americans are reminded of the presence of religion that is so fundamental to who we are and what it means to be American. So on September 11th, when a group of people who carry different cultural beliefs waged war against the United States, many Americans began to deem people from the Arab-Muslim world as the enemy. This leads to an opportunity for an interesting discussion about the intersection of identities with your students. One possible discussion question would be: What happens if you are a Muslim and an American or Arab and an American? Many would say that people of the Muslim faith or of Arab decent have become the Outsiders of post September 11th USA. According to the Human Rights Watch, in 2002 a reported number of 13,000 Muslim and/or Arab people without connections to terrorist organizations were deported and 1,200 people were detained without being charged with any crime. The Patriot Act justifies these actions against Muslims and Arabs as necessary security measures to protect the United States from terrorism.
Dating back to the early 20th century the debate between tradition and progress has been in existence. Fundamentalism is a term signifying the return to the fundamentals of Christian religious thought. In the early 20th century Fundamentalism grew in order to rescue religious identity from being taken over by Modernist beliefs. As women fought for suffrage and minorities found opportunities by relocating into cities; traditional identity roles were challenged. Modernism represents the new ideas and innovations of the early 20th century in the fields of: science; art; literature; technology; and communications. To teach students about the Fundamentalism - Modernism debate it would be beneficial to mention the Scopes Trial of 1925. The result of the trial was to allow the theory of Evolution to be taught in public schools. As we reflect on the United States in the years since September 11th we can detect the return to fundamentalism. Christian Fundamentalists in America are mobilizing against anyone who challenges their idea of what it means to be American. Amongst these challengers (viewed as Outsiders by the Fundamentalists) are: non-Christian religious groups, sexual minorities, and political liberals.(22) The Anatomy of Your Enemy unit is designed to explore the increase of anti-homosexual attitudes within the United States as a reaction to fundamentalism in the post September 11th years. With your students it would be beneficial to talk about current issues such as hate crime legislation, Gay Marriage, and the history of discrimination against sexual minorities in the workforce and military.
When those in power brand members of certain groups as "less than human" solely because their identity separates "them" from "us," they pave the way for gross human rights abuses against such groups (Amnesty International, 1999).
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."(23)
In 1990, the U.S. Congress created the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This Act defines hate crimes as, "Crimes in which the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals." Victimizing and intimidating individuals and entire groups of people because of their identity promotes silence and invisibility amongst members of the target group.(24)According to the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, reported incidences of hate crimes have ranged from murder, non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, simple assault, intimidation, arson, and destruction, damage or vandalism of property. In 2000, FBI statistics reported that 16% of hate crimes were committed on the basis of sexual orientation. Unfortunately, because many gays in America are "closeted" --which means that they have kept their sexual identity a secret, many incidents of hate crimes go unreported. With your students you can create your own definition of what should constitute a hate crime. In this unit I propose that discriminatory government policy, legislation that violates the democratic freedoms of a specific group within our citizenry should also be considered a hate crime, because there are psychological impacts on "Outsider" groups that are excluded from government protections offered to the rest of America.
In the book Voted Out, author Glenda M. Russel, discusses the detrimental implications of discriminatory government policy, by evaluating the impact of Colorado's Amendment 2. In 1992, Colorado passed an amendment that allowed for discrimination against sexual minorities within the state. Sexual minorities are people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT).(25) Therefore, members of Colorado's LGBT community were denied legal protections in all realms of society, including the work force and housing. Russel suggests that the implications of the Amendment are that the state has the power to create legislation that violates the protections of certain American citizens. Furthermore, on a social level the Amendment set a precedent for the nation --that sexual minorities are not equally protected, encouraging anti-LGBT sentiment throughout the nation.
When thinking about the Holocaust many wonder how it was possible that Nazi ideology was able to mobilize citizens to commit acts of discrimination against their Jewish neighbors. To fully understand this we must analyze all avenues of the Holocaust. For example, we must consider the economic desperation of European nations after WWI. Additionally, we could take a closer look at the psychology of fear tactics used by the Nazi government. I believe that to teach the Holocaust successfully teachers must begin by looking at the roots of Anti-Semitism throughout Europe's history. In Hitler's book, Mein Kampf, he talks about exterminating the European Jewry. His ideas were not original. In fact, if you read an old manuscript by Martin Luther entitled, The Jews and Their Lies (1543), you find the use of almost identical Anti-Semitic language. These seeds of hatred are what allowed the Holocaust to occur.
Likewise, when talking about American anti-LGBT legislation in the post September 11th years it is important for us to teach the history of sexual minorities throughout American history. The film
can be used to introduce students to many positive contributions made by members of the LGBT community during the Harlem Renaissance, on the battlefields of the World Wars, and during the Civil Rights Movement. In addition to the film I will use excerpts from an historical fiction book entitled, Stone Butch Blues, by Leslie Feinberg. This book documents the experiences of a transgender person named Jess, from teenager to adulthood. Transgender refers to any human being who defines their own gender identity regardless of chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex, or initial gender role.(26) Jess's story is powerful because it offers information of what life was like for sexual minorities in the United States from the 1960s and into the 1980s. These resources reveal the social injustices and discrimination imposed against members of the LGBT community throughout American history, and the seeds of hatred that enable post September 11th anti-gay legislation.
By taking a closer look at the 20th century, students will learn about topics such as: raids on LGBT sections of cities; the Red Scare of the 1920s and the Black Listing of the Cold War, in which many gays lost their jobs because they were falsely accused of being Communist; pink slips, which discharged homosexuals from the military during World War Two; Colorado's 1992 legislation that excluded sexual minorities from equal rights; and the lack of hate crime legislation to protect members of the LGBT community from physical and emotional violence. Studying this history is imperative in understanding the general attitude about homosexuality in the United States before the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001. Your students will need to know what homophobia means and how it contributes to the "Insider/Outsider" power dynamic of our country. Homophobia is defined as the fear and hatred of those who are gay or lesbian. Homophobia could not exist without heterosexist beliefs. Therefore, students must know that heterosexism is the idea that heterosexuality is superior to other forms of sexual orientation identities.(27) It is this homophobic and heterosexist atmosphere that has allowed further discrimination against sexual minorities in the Post September 11th years.
What does Marriage represent?
In America the institution of marriage symbolizes cultural values that are rooted in Judeo-Christian tradition. Since September 11th, 11 states have passed a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. There are now 38 states that do not allow gay marriage.(28) Meanwhile in the world, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and just last week Canada (July 20th, 2005), have passed legislation to legalize gay marriage. America is a nation that prides itself on being the strongest, the most democratic, and the freest. If this is the case, then why is America lagging behind with legislation that would make all Americans "free" and "equal?" An interesting question to present to your students would be: What makes America different from these four nations? Here you can explore the influence of Christian Fundamentalism in 20th century America. Additionally, President Bush's,
Address to the Nation,
demonstrates one example of America's leader encouraging citizens to uphold the values of being an American during this time of war. This use of nationalism during America's time of war has further placed the LGBT community as America's Outsiders.
I was inspired to create this unit when listening to the radio one afternoon. The report was about a young lesbian in Maryland. While walking down the street she was abducted by a group of young men. The perpetrators brutally raped her and etched the word "DYKE" into her chest. The most upsetting portion of the report was that this incident was only one of the many hate crimes committed against sexual minorities living in Maryland. Recently, Maryland Governor, Robert L. Ehrlich vetoed a bill for lesbian and gay rights, which would allow lesbian and gay men rights such as visiting partners in the hospital and making health care decisions for each other. As of yet, the governor of Maryland has not extended hate crime legislation to include sexual minorities.(29) Students can conduct research on Connecticut's LGBT legislation. Additionally, students can compare Connecticut's position to the positions of the remaining 49 states.