The health of a nation and the effectiveness of the technology available in such regions, and what technology needs to be improved upon and developed to meet the needs of their population are measured by economic and health indicators. The importance of economic indicators such as per capita income (GDP) and expenditure and health indicators such as life expectancy, infant mortality, number of death and causes, disease incidence and prevalence, immunization records and DALYs cannot be overemphasized. Also, there are ethical issues industrial and developing countries continue to grapple with, such as providing an adequate level of health care equally to every income and age group within their population.
The New Haven Public School Precalculus Curriculum covers mathematical modeling and applications of polynomial functions, power functions, exponential and logarithmic functions to real life situations. This curriculum unit will be aligned with the eight common core state standards of mathematical practices and the high school Precalculus common core content standards on functions.
The curriculum unit will look at data on economic and health indicators specifically GDP per capita and life expectancy from 5 representatives’ countries-USA, China, Malawi, India and Bangladesh. Life expectancy is generally higher in countries with higher income per person, this is hardly surprising and there are many reasons for this pattern. Higher income levels mean that people can afford to eat sufficiently, so problems related to undernutrition decrease or disappear altogether. Higher income levels can fund better hospitals, more medicines, vaccination and campaigns to eradicate diseases. Higher income levels can also fund better sanitation, so that people do not have to drink contaminated water or have to live near piles of garbage. People can afford better heating and cooking equipment so that they do not suffer from indoor air-pollution.30
However, as seen earlier, comparing data between Bangladesh and India, higher per capita does not always translate to higher life expectancy. Other factors such as the GINI coefficient may also influence life expectancy. This curriculum unit, however, will be restricted to looking at two indicators given time constraint. Students will collect and analyze economic data on GDP per capita and health data on life expectancy of the 5 identified representative countries. The lesson unit will include interactive videos /graphs from Gapminder31, the world bank data32 and Google explore data33.
Using the statistical tool on the TI graphing calculator, students will work in small groups. Each group will focus on data set from one representative country and create scatter plots from their data set. They will generate appropriate regression models of the scatter plot, analyze their graphs and use the trend line to make predictions, recommendations and to justify their reasonings. Each group will present their findings to the rest of the class using either a PowerPoint presentation or by creating a poster. Students will compare and contrast the results from the 5 representative countries, critique each other’s work and provide justifications for their conclusions.
Specific Objectives and Common Core Standards
- Analyze algebraic and graphical representation of parent functions of polynomial, exponential and logarithmic functions. (HSF-IF.C.7c ; HSF-IF.C.7e; HSF-LE.A.3)
- Explore the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms. (HSF-BF.B.5; HSF-LE.A.4)
- Graph, analyze and write equation to model data sets using technology. (HSF-IF.C.7; HSS-ID.B.6a)
- Understand and differentiate between low-income, mid-income and high- income countries. (SMP 2; SMP 6)
- Define and describe economic and health indicators, such as GDP per capita, GINI coefficient and life expectancy within the context of low-income, mid-income and high - income countries. (SMP 2; SMP 6)
- Organize, graph, analyze and write an equation that models a data set on GDP per capita between 1960 to 2017 from Malawi, Bangladesh, India, China and the USA.( HSF-IF.B.4; HSS-ID.B.6; HSS-ID.B.6a)
- Organize, graph, analyze and write an equation that models a data set on life expectancy between 1960 to 2017 from Malawi, Bangladesh, India, China and the USA.( HSF-IF.B.4; HSS-ID.B.6; HSS-ID.B.6a)
- Create a scatter plot showing the relationship between GDP per capita and life expectancy between 1960 to 2017 using raw data sets from Malawi, Bangladesh, India, China and the USA.( HSS-ID.B.6; HSS-ID.B.6a)
- Create a scatter plot showing the relationship between GDP per capita and life expectancy between 1960 to 2017 using log -log transformed data sets from Malawi, Bangladesh, India, China and the USA.( HSS-ID.B.6; HSS-ID.B.6a; HSS-ID.B.6c)
- Interpret the correlation coefficient ( r ), and other parameters of the linear regression model generated from the transformed data.(HSS-ID.C.8; HSS-ID.C.7)
- Develop, administer and analyze an opinion survey on ethical issues addressing accessibility to Human Centered Biotechnology. (SMP 1)
- Make recommendations for possible solutions based on their findings from the opinion survey and overall understanding of the unit. (SMP 3)
Opinion Survey on Ethical Concerns
Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between economic development, technological advancement, and health outcomes. However, as the cost of health care delivery continue to grow, it remains out of reach of low income to mid-income earners. Consequently, there are valid ethical questions behind the rational for the continuous advancement of human centered biotechnology if it is not made affordable and adoptable. One of the major steps that has been taken to assess the impact of technology was the establishment of Office Technology Assessment in the 1960s by the USA. Health technology assessment was then developed as an off shoot to the office of Technology Assessment. Unfortunately, this initiative was dissolved in 1995 due to criticism that it was duplicating other agencies work.
Technology Assessment particularly in the USA, focused on such issues as the implications of supersonic transport, pollution of the environment, and ethics of genetic screening34. In its early years, a health-related technology assessment was called a “medical technology assessment” (MTA). In the 1980s, the term “healthcare technology assessment” became the dominant term. In the 1990s, “health technology assessment” (HTA) came into wide usage. The change to healthcare technology assessment seems more appropriate given that “medical technology” usually refers to just physicians, though technology related to health is much broader. Multiple U.S. public agencies were attracted to the ideas of technology assessment and attempted to apply them to health technologies. In 1973, the U.S. Academy of Sciences published a report that examined the broad implications of four health technologies: in vitro fertilization, choosing the sex of children, retardation of aging, and modifying human behavior35.
Although early work in HTA was inspired by general perspectives of health technology, such work in the field tended only to focus on efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.36 In particular, healthcare ethics were usually given little or no attention in HTA reports, despite growing interest in ethics in health and among some experts in HTA37. If the goal of Healthcare decision makers worldwide is to improve health outcomes across their populations, best practices in HTA has to be adopted. Hence, a well-developed HTA program should not only assess the medical and economic benefits of healthcare technology. The social and ethical implications of the development, affordability and adoptability of a healthcare technology should be an integral part of an effective HTA program.
Students will conduct and analyze an opinion survey on the rising cost of health care, its affordability and accessibility to all income groups. The survey will solicit responses on questions such as: “who should bear the cost of development of human centered biotechnology -the government versus private developers”; “should human centered design be driven by the goal of profit maximization or by a moral obligation for a healthier population”; “is there a moral obligation on the part of the developed world to design bio-technology that will be affordable and adoptable by the developing world?”
Lesson Guide with Classroom Activities
||Strategies and Activities
|Global Development Since 1800
||Introduce lesson with video on global development on 200 years that changed the world by Hans Rosling from www.gapminder.org/videos/200-years-that-changed-the-world/.
Note taking while viewing video.
Respond to questions based on video.
Incorporate strategies from Gapminder teacher’s guide for class discussion.
|Introduction to Economic and Health Indicators/Terminologies
||Define and describe measures of infant mortality, life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, DALYs, poverty rate, per capita income, gross domestic product, GINI Coefficient, low, middle- and high-income countries.
||Graphic organizers for comparing and contrasting; calculating key indicators and terminologies.
|Consequences of Industrialization And Biotechnology Advances
||Readings from articles: How Ultrasound Changed the Human Sex Ratio; Abnormal Sex Ratios in Human Populations: Causes and Consequences; The Consequences of Industrialization: Evidence from Water Pollution and Digestive Cancers in China
Annotation and summary of major points in small groups; Group Discussion
Classroom discourse: critique each other’s arguments and justify their position.
|Economic and Health Disparities among Nations
||Handout and web resources - Health and Economic Data: A Global Comparison; World Bank Data and Google Explore data on life expectancy and GDP within the context of the following five representative countries: Malawi, Bangladesh, India, China and USA
Work in small groups of 4 using data from a representative country.
Create scatter plots, generate appropriate regression models : linear, quadratic, exponential and logarithms using the statistical tool on the TI graphing calculator.
Interpret results and parameters from data analysis, Slope, intercept, Correlation coefficient.Representatives from small groups discusses and share country’s result with whole class
|Ethical Issues And Biotechnological Advances
||Focused primary research on the role of ethics in development, affordability and adoptability of advances in healthcare technology.
Whole class: review and discuss health care costs and coverage; Generate questionnaire for opinion survey from discourse.
Small groups: administer and analyze opinion survey, present results to the class both digitally and orally.
Whole class: summarize major findings; recommend possible solutions to address issues raised.