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Exploring Bloodlines through Immigration and Migration

Pamela Monk Kelley

Contents of Curriculum Unit 13.02.06:

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The purpose of this curriculum unit is to engage students in a classroom "outside school walls", as well as, exploring their bloodlines to ignite a family centered dialogue about origin and pride. The scope of this unit deals with Immigration and Migration of the Latino and African-American ethnic groups. While these groups share histories of migration and struggle, students will also learn how histories of race, ethnicity and class dramatically shaped the possibilities for migrants upon their arrival in northern cities. This curriculum unit will help to empower students whose family histories may indeed be complicated, but worth exploring. They will create a documentary which includes placing the students on a journey back to their homelands regarding immigration/migration into American cities. This is a historical and educational experience that will engage students with many linkages and connections to United States History. They will virtually travel in the same footsteps as their ancestors by uncovering the story behind their migrating from the South (or other homelands), aligning with benchmarks, and bringing life to the history books.

I currently teach two US History 11t h grade classes, and provide support for the students with special needs at a magnet school with challenging behaviors and low-academic performance. This is an alternate placement, where students come from sending schools throughout the district, where they have experienced very little success in their educational environments. But at our school, they flourish and benefit from a small and flexible learning environment, as well as having the opportunity to build on small successes. We believe that our school must engage, value, challenge, and provide success to all our students, and that our students can grow to higher levels of achievement no matter the other obstacles in their lives.

Never before has such a demand been placed on schools, even schools that are lacking financially. The students' basic needs outside of school aren't being met. The educational and social issues are just as challenging today as yesterday, but our school is faced with different social-ills than in the past. How do educators change dysfunctional families, increase parental involvement or make schools safe from gangs and violence? Students are experiencing life tragedies and are forced to face real world issues before they complete high school. Many lack the necessities of life like: food, shelter and clothing. Schools must increasingly serve as safe havens for students, many whom come from dysfunctional families and neighborhoods. Many don't know their parentage, or at least their family's bloodline. Family history might be painful to some, or an unimportant factor to others. More undocumented migrants are attending public schools. Efforts are being made toward citizenship for young people who came to the United States illegally, but the government is making provisions for those who continue to live in United States. All these are factors in exploring the family bloodline; however, my goal is to encourage learning while embracing family empowerment. The struggles of low-income, minority families are often portrayed simply as sets of social problems that disempowered families. And this is where your unit would be helpful because you're making clear that the students' family histories are worth exploring.

My concept of learning is that learning is new, observable, and measureable knowledge. I believe learning can be modified by the way knowledge is acquired through different types of information. Learning is an on-going process and can occur through education, personal development, school or training. And learning theories allow us to better serve the diverse learning styles of our students and educate them for a wider range of intelligence. Everybody has different learning styles for meaningful learning, but teachers cannot represent all the styles in a traditional classroom environment. With the flexibility and help of the learning, we can design learning environments in which students can manage and construct their own representations of knowledge in their minds. By exploring, mapping, charting, and graphing the students' bloodlines, this will prove to be a worthwhile unit. Finding out that their great-great grandparent was born a slave, but died a businessman is worth knowing. Or offer studying the family history of a neighbor or friend. It's important that they see ordinary lives as important to study. In addition, it will allow the students to connect or crossed reference their origins, or in the cases where students are unaware of their particular bloodline and experience challenges uncovering information, that student will be able to chose a well-known American or celebrity in which they have a connection, and develop a map of their bloodline.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were a period of extreme social change in the US and the labor force. It was a time when racial difference was quite complicated and there were concerns of middle class white Americans with both European immigrants and the migrations of African Americans in this period. One of the concerns was that the integration of freed slaves into the American labor force after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, as well as the unprecedented migration of foreign immigrants and rural African Americans into urban areas, gave rise to acute racial tensions. African Americans were exposed to a range of mostly white middle-class responses to the racial crisis that were reflected in housing, jobs, and discriminatory treatment. Another concern was that it was a very different kind of discrimination in the north than what African Americans had experienced in the south. Many witnessed the rise of white mob rule in the Jim Crow South and the simultaneous exodus of hundreds of thousands of African Americans to the North. Where there were Jim Crow laws to oppress African Americans in the south; the North had exhibited hidden racism practices, poor work conditions, low wages and the possibility of no job advancement, and housing segregation excluded from unions. The migration to the north was celebrated by crossing over to the "Promised Land" with shouts, hugs and kisses, but to be faced with rejection from white Americans, somewhat like the treatment of European immigrants, which was very devastating to the African Americans. Others were concerned about how the labor force in the south was mainly agricultural, while in the North it was industrial. As the US economy became increasingly industrialized, vast disparities in income arose between the upper classes and the working poor, African Americans, Native Americans, and European immigrants. The working poor were not extended the same privileges, and relied upon progressive legislation to receive humane education and exemption from labor, though that there were different possibilities for advancement for these groups. For example, industrial labor though difficult offered Euro immigrants more econ opportunities. Finally, the post war demands also created a division between races. After World War I, the labor wars began; soldiers fighting for jobs, immigrants losing jobs, Chicago Riot of 1919 over housing and neighborhood control, to mention a few things. As Grossman indicated in his book, Land of Hope, "the simplest explanation of the Great Migration, at what one might call the macro-historical level, is that it happened because of the impact of the war on the labor market."

The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West for most of the 20th century. Before the Depression, moving north had been a major way for Southern African Americans to find higher-paying jobs. As in the early 50's, my parents were part of the great migration to the North. They resided in Newton Grove, North Carolina until they found themselves blocked from the better agricultural jobs, and were forced to accept lower-wage employment. My unit addresses the migration of African –Americans, as to how they left the oppressed south (small rural town) to the land of good and plenty in the North, of course, that was the perception of the North, but not the case. The African American migration decreased the European immigration in 1924. Some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration (1910–1930), numbering about 1.6 million migrants, who left mostly rural areas to migrate to northern and mid-western industrial cities, and after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970) in which 5 million or more people moved, including many to California and other western cities. The unit also explores the bloodlines of other Europeans, because they too were faced with the hustle and bustle of the large city life, trying to survive being a newcomer by working very hard. In many ways, the end of that European immigration pushed up demand for southern black labor in the urban north.

Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade. When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African-American population lived in the Northeastern or Midwestern United States. African-Americans were mentioned only by race prior to the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation in the census records. The censuses were taken every ten years. After 1870, African Americans were listed by name, race, and grouped with the head of the household. Therefore, by examination of census records, the students will demonstrate the competency for problem solving and critical thinking, accessing and analyzing information, communication and collaboration, accountability, citizenship and responsibility. They will virtually travel in the same footsteps as their ancestors, by uncovering the story behind their migrating from to the South (or other homelands) and bringing life to the history books. There is the perception that the conditions of the south have been better than during the Reconstruction, Depression and Jim Crow eras. This will be relevant because a reverse migration had gathered strength since 1965, dubbed the New Great Migration, the term for demographic changes from 1965 to the present in which many blacks have returned to the South, generally to states and cities where economic opportunities are the best. Since 1965, economic difficulties of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" with lower costs of living, family and kinship ties, and improving racial relations have all acted to attract African Americans to the Southern United States in substantial numbers. As early as 1975 to 1980, seven southern states were net black migration gainers. African-American populations continue to drop throughout much of the Northeast, particularly with black emigration out of the state of New York, as well as out of Northern New Jersey, as they rise in the Southern United States James Gregory Bennett calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in his book, The Southern Diaspora.

The unit will address visual, audio, tactile and kinesthetic learners. The demographics at my school are thirty percent Latino Americans, sixty percent African-American and ten percent of other nationalities. That is why the Great Migration experience is instrumental in the learning process for my students, and for them to know the perseverance of and to develop positive relationships about their ancestors. My curriculum unit is called "Exploring Bloodlines through Immigration and Migration". The activities will include placing the students on a journey back to their homelands; which suggests that the students will research a database of digitized material on African, Caribbean, Jamaican, Spanish, European, etc. regarding immigration/migration into American cities. This is a historical and educational experience that will engage students with many linkages and connections to United States History.

In essence, the student will be able to create a documentary as their final project about the 20t h Century and the Great Migration. By 1910s-30s, tensions between African Americans and Irish were not anywhere near what it had been in 19t h century as discussed by Anbinder and Harris. During the early 20t h century, the Irish had very much established themselves in U.S. cities. The documentary will exhibit how between 1910 and 1930, the African-American population increased by about forty percent in Northern states as a result of the migration, mostly in the major cities, including Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, and New York City; which had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the 20th century. Some of the highlights will be how Blacks were recruited for industrial jobs, such as positions with the expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, but as the economy declined, many African Americans lost their jobs to unemployed white workers, the "last hired, was first fired", many share croppers' that lost their jobs when farmers were in less demand and married women lost their jobs to men. The documentary will address the changes which were concentrated in cities, and had also attracted millions of new or recent European immigrants. Much thought will remain focused on how the tensions developed as the people competed for jobs and housing. Tensions were often most severe between whites, defending their recently gained positions and territory, and between recent immigrants and blacks.

New York was the gateway for immigrants to enter into the northeast, and the location was ideal for transportation by ship. Many immigrants travelled for weeks to reach the United States. Eric Homberger's book, The Historical Atlas of New York City, a visual celebration of nearly 400 years of New York City's history, is a great selection of maps, drawing and charts, and an in depth history to engage students with a walk in New York City prior to the 19t h century. However, at the building of the city in the early 1600's, the presence of the Dutch was in New York City. Then the British came between the era of 1664-1783, and African Americans were among the early settlers at that time. African Americans arrived in New York through the oppression of slavery before the Roman Catholics and decades prior to Jews arriving from Curaco. During the 19t h Century, the culture of New York was vastly changing, Taverns played a role in politics, and amusement was sought through activities at Central Park and Coney Island.

At the turn of the 20t h century, there were Jewish, Eastern European, and Italian enclave, and the Irish was dominating the neighborhoods. The Latinos had similar experiences migrating to the North as the European immigrants and the African Americans. They were considered the newcomers, and received the treatment marginal to their consciousness. After the nineteenth century and World War I, Puerto Rican settlements in New York City continued through various social and economic processes. As Virginia E. Sanchez Korrol mentioned in her book, From Colonia to Community, The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917-1948, "changes in the island's economic structure increasingly led to both internal and external emigration to the mainland. Instigated by a poorly integrated labor force, Puerto Rican men, women, and children left their homes. Early Puerto Rican settlers came as merchants and students, as adventures and revolutionaries, and as field and factory workers. The first migration based on commercial factors served as a rehearsal for the next two, which were more politically and economically motivated." The documentary will explore the development of the Puerto Rican settlements, or colonias, in New York during the first four decades of the 20t h century. Sugar cane and tobacco processing constituted Puerto Rico's main industries. By mid-1920s, cigar makers suffered a decrease in the industry, due to an increase in cigarette smoking and the Great Depression. "By 1939, because the tobacco industry in Puerto Rico was virtually nonexistent, lack of production lead to an increase in unemployment. During the period of 1930, Puerto Rico's dependency increased on the United States for basic commodities. Virginia E.Sanchez Korrol continues to explain, "Clearly, the movements of people from Puerto Rico to the United States responded basically to economic conditions on the island which in turn created a marginal population outside of the stable work force". European immigration was halted after 1924 in United States, and opportunities for the Puerto Rican migrant workers were increasing for the next two decades.

There were demographic problems in Puerto Rico, and some social scientists agreed that migration was one the best solution to the demographic problem of the Island. Many New York business men needed workers to increase their productivity and welcomed the Puerto Ricans to New York. From the 1930-1950's, the migrants took work below their skilled level, and worked factories, hoping to climb the occupational ladder. Here is where African American and Latinos shared decaying neighborhoods, racial conflicts, and disparity of jobs. In Arlene Davila's book, Barrios Dreams, Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and The Neoliberal City, she stated that, "My focus on Latinos is purposeful and part of a growing literature intended to disturb the dominant tenet or urban studies, where issues of race and ethnicity are consistently subsumed to a black-and-white paradigm that veils the complex multiethnic/multiracial dilemmas of contemporary cities." She illustrated how the meaning of East Harlem was to Latinos as Harlem was to African Americans, and how the specificity of current racial, ethnic, and spatial conflicts in East Harlem." How does a community with a long, multicultural immigrant history, formerly Europeans, with a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans from 1900's and peak in 1950's change into a ghetto culture? As East Harlem became "The Island within the City", it was home for many Latinos. East Harlem also embraced one of the fasting growing immigrant groups in the United States, the Mexicans. Presently, the government has created provisions for undocumented immigrants, and allowing them to remain in this country to work as Americans.

As a veteran teacher of 35 years and family historian, I have done extensive research on my family history. I wrote the series, All Roads Lead to Newton Grove"; which should be used as a tool to ignite a family centered dialogue about origin and pride. I have appeared in People Magazine, the June 27, 2011 issue, featured in an article titled "Healing Slavery's Wounds." Also, I am trained in TV productions and behind the scenes duties such as set design, lighting, and camera work. I believe my research on pre- and post slavery coupled with my training in TV Productions and editing, this unit will provide a fulfilling educational experience for each student.

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Were the conditions really better in the north? Jim Crow Laws were more prevalent in the south, but double standards existed with very little racial harmony throughout the nation. For example, where laws prohibited mixed marriages in the south, much was done to make life just as challenging in the north. But, there still was a price to be paid for marrying out of your race. Racial profiling was another attack on minorities, and the conditions of their neighborhood were deplorable. During the 20t h Century (1910 -1930), many immigrants migrated to Modern American cities searching for the "Promised Land", but to find a life of superficial expectations.

In 1971, when instructed by her fifth grade teacher to prepare an oral report based on her true country of origin, Regina E. Mason, a direct descendant of a runaway slave, did not expect to trace her bloodline and find a "goldmine"! She was able to map the trails of her ancestors, and trace her roots to New Haven, CT. In 2008, she co-edited her great, great father's autobiography, Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave; which he wrote and self-published in 1855. She didn't know that she would become a genealogist and spend fifteen years exploring the life of her famous ancestor, his wife, their children, and the communities in which they lived. Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave is the first fugitive slave narrative in American History. Along with the different accounts of cruelty he had encountered while escaping from the oppression of slavery, William's escape and migration from Savannah, Georgia, to New Haven was a courageous and daring one. In the current book, Mason includes letters and family lore from the Family Bible, as well as, the mapping of her bloodline. After she had captured the ultimate thrill of discovering her ancestry, Mason journeyed from California to New Haven to visit William Grimes' grave. When William Grimes reached the north as was mulatto man, the life that he faced was similar to a servant, performing many duties as he did when he was a slave which he escaped from a lifetime of turmoil. Mason's story of recovery will be used in this unit as a guide in the Mapping Bloodline lesson. William Grimes' bloodline can be traced back until 1756, when Benjamin Grymes, Jr., great- grandson of William Fitzhugh, founder of Eagle's Nest plantation in King George County, was born on January 2, at Eagle's Nest. William, son of Benjamin Grymes, Jr. and an unknown slave woman, was born in King George, Virginia, and his probable owner was Dr. William Gibbons Stuart. The year 1799 was the first escape attempt of William Grimes, and in 1811, William was sold to his fifth master, who transferred him from Virginia to Savannah, Georgia. In 1815, William escaped from Savannah to New York City on board the cargo ship Casket. He travelled on foot to New Haven, where he worked at a variety of jobs. In 1817, William was faced with many attacks on his character. He was accused of assaulting a woman in New Bedford, and tried twice, and acquitted both times. He married Clarissa Caesar in New Haven, and then later moved to Litchfield, Connecticut. He established a barbershop and brought real estate there from a celebrated furniture maker Silias E. Cheney. In 1820, he rented his shop in Litchfield, and then moved to New Haven to work as a barber, grocer, and furniture merchant. By 1824, Grimes purchased his freedom for $500; he had opened a short lived barber shop in New Bedford, Massachusetts a couple years before. He wrote his autobiography, and published it in New York City in 1825, but later in 1855, he rewrote and published his second book in New Haven. William died August 21, 1865 and was interred in the Grove Street Cemetery across from Yale College.

The students will read the Life of William Grimes, and Harriett A. Jacobs's book, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, written by herself. The students will be asked to compare the struggles of these two former slaves, as they migrated to the north through a way of escape, and how they received assistance to freedom. Both of these slaves were very intelligent, and able to document their past in their autobiographies. In contrast, Mason and I share many similarities. As previously mentioned, my family migrated from the south in search of a better life in the north. My country of origin was Africa, and my ancestors were brought to America against their will. DNA straits determined that my family came from the Cameroon tribe in Africa. Unfortunately, my ancestors were slaves, and documentation of our bloodline was erased through census records and other literary resources. For example, African-Americans were not listed by name until 1870 in the United States census. Tracing to their country of origin, is almost difficult for many, but, nevertheless, not an impossible research project. As a youth, I was at a lost when talking about my country of origin. Because, all I was taught about Africa growing up was that they were savages and uncivilized people. With this negative perception of a great nation of people instilled in my home, school, and community, like many of young African-Americans avoided the embarrassment of being associated with Africa. Until the 60's and 70's when "Black Power" became a movement of self-image for African Americans, images of Black History were very degrading. TV shows exhibited blacks as nannies, prostitutes, and criminals. Now, thanks to culturally inclusive television programming, blacks are portrayed in better roles like, judges, lawyers, families with two parents, as well as doctors and other professions. I was brought up in a different period and time, but the students of today should have a different perception of their country of origin than I had. If an African-American student is asked to tell about their true country of origin, they will be able to use the National Geographic movies to talk about the land, animals and people, instead of using Tarzan movies, where humans were swinging from the trees like barbaric apes and monkeys.

Immigration and Urbanization will be of central use for the unit, starting with the late 19t h century when the United States experienced massive immigration causing many changes to develop, coupled with the rise of the city, new social patterns, conflicts and ideas of national unity developed and this growing cultural diversity. During this time period, immigration changed. Students will trace patterns of immigrant settlement in different areas of the country and the impact on American Culture and will examine the tensions resulting from massive immigration to the United States. Students will distinguish between "old and "new" immigrants and their roles in society. As more immigrants came to the United States, acclimating new citizens into society became a priority for the government. Students will analyze the development of immigration law and policy, determine the socio-economic and political challenges facing cities as a result of immigration, and determine the validity of an American "melting pot". Students will understand the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes that resulted from changing labor patterns.

Essential Content

1. Socio-economic factors leading to immigration
2. Economic opportunities for immigrants in different areas of the United States especially cities.
3. Social, economic, and political factors leading to urbanization.
4. The values and traditions of immigrants and their positive and negative impacts on American culture.

Under the assumption that most students will not be familiar with their country of origin, and their family's quest to migrate from one American city to another, the students will be required to complete a pre-and post formative assessment, so that new knowledge can be scored. Once students have completed a formative assessment about their TRUE country of origin like; my true country of origin is _________, and I know the following facts about my country of origin: 1) Location, 2) Types of Food, 3) Ethnicity 4) Stereotypes- known for-lifestyles, the mapping process will begin. Provisions will be made for students who may only trace their families back to a point of origin in the US because they no longer have that knowledge. The students will create points, lines and polygons as Places, Paths and Polygons, in Prezi, which has the added advantage of being free, supported on Mac & PC and is easy to use. They can embed all kinds of multimedia into the placemark balloons, including text, images, youtube videos and even create custom balloons if they know a little HTML. Sets of features can be saved to KML files, which are easy to share and supported on many platforms. These maps will be used in the documentary and presented by each student.

With a population of students where Black and Hispanic share classrooms, neighborhoods, and family, this unit would help demonstrate why there are so many similarity in their culture. The definitions of Latin Americans vary, but this project is from a cultural perspective. Latin America generally includes those parts of the Americas where Spanish, French or Portuguese prevail: Mexico, most of Central America, and South America. There is also an important Latin American cultural presence in the United States (e.g. California and the Southwest, and cities such as New York and Miami). There is also increasing attention to the relations between Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole. In Louis Gates' documentary, Black in Latin America, he explains how 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World during the Middle Passage. While just over 11.0 million survived the arduous journey, only about 450,000 of them arrived in the United States. The rest—over ten and a half million—were taken to the Caribbean and Latin America. This astonishing fact changes our entire picture of the history of slavery in the Western hemisphere, and of its lasting cultural impact. The introduction of slaves from Africa; which has influenced for instance dance, religion, and cuisine, especially in countries such as Dominican Republic, Brazil, Panama, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Cuba, Mexico and Puerto Rico. These millions of Africans created new and vibrant cultures, magnificently compelling syntheses of various African, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish influences. Legends behind dance and songs from Latin America are expressed in dances like Merengue and are closely in comparison to the tradition of African music. The students will be exposed through multi-media on the migratory process of Latin Americans, and how it impacts our cities today.

Interviews will be done with the elders of the family to retrieve as much information as possible. Various factual interviews with elderly members about each family form a bridge between them and the distant past. The elders of the family recount the narratives, lives, and times; which always seem filled with so many heart-warming and dramatic adventures. They also remembered colorful traditions and stories told to them by their parents and grandparents; which will take their research back to the early 1900's. There are frustrations, as well as a wealth of information contained in a single document or in the memory of an elderly relative. Tracing one's forefathers has been compared to fitting together the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Each fact discovered about an ancestor leads to other interlocking fact about that ancestor and about other ancestors. As the pieces come together, the portraits of their descendants will take form. The students will focus on the migratory process.

"When a woman takes the blues
She tucks her head and cries;
But when a man catches the blues,
He catches er freight and rides."

This song was an example of the movement of black laborers from the Deep South, as they sang songs of departure. One elderly family member from Camden, S.C. shared how their family was enticed to leave the south through the rumors of better conditions in the north. Early 1950s, a member from MT. Zion Baptist Church had returned from a visit to Connecticut, and told the congregation about the job opportunities in the North. Mr. James Brown was a quartet singer, who was commissioned to inform people that the Creoso Plant Standard Brick Yard needed workers, and they provided pay as well as housing. So, the oldest of the family and her spouse, left South Carolina in 1956 to secure housing and employment for the other eleven siblings. The following year, they sent for the rest of the family. But earlier in the year 1917, a vast population of "Negroes" left the south to invade the "Promised Land". Grossman's book, Land of Hope addresses how families left their hub in Mississippi to embrace the promises made by relatives in Chicago. The Negroes that were interviewed stated that, "the worst place there is better than the best place here." Literally, workers were leaving their sharecropping jobs, and leaving crops in the middle of the fields, jumping freight trains and leaving all their belongings behind, and migrating with the clothes on their backs, bound for the north, some as far as Canada. Some carefully planned their escape, and others impulsively left the south with no regrets. They had to avoid the traps of the police and white southerners, because they would be jailed or beaten for trying to leave their jobs, but the migrants were crafty with their escapes. Some would walk miles to other train stations to outsmart their captors. Some would contact organizations with offers, like they would come immediately for a job and room, and others would ask for free transportation for themselves and/or family. Most often the men would travel first, and later send for their spouses and families. However, occasionally, men would leave and never send for their families. It had to be an amazing trust factor between relationships, with the ones who were being left behind, and the ones who were providing them a better life. Pastors were leaving with their congregations, and businesses followed their clientele. In the Bible, GOD promised the Israelites a land full of "Milk and Honey", and religion played a significant part in the decision for the people to leave everything behind. As GOD instructed Lot to leave the City of Sodom and Gomorrah, many of the migrants settled in the north and never looked back. The story that was told to me through my parents was that the times were very difficult for them as farmers, and the southerners were so cruel to the Negroes. Even though my mother could be interred in the family cemetery in the south; for many years she opposed the south to be where she spent her final resting place because of how she was treated when she was alive. In an interview she stated, "I prayed for GOD to bring me to the "Promised Land", and he brought me to New Haven…"I will use my family's bloodline only as a model when assisting students with the creation of the Bloodline map, and these are examples of the type of interviews that would be incorporated in the documentary as one way of giving a clearer picture of the struggles of migration.

What is so special about New Haven, and why did so many immigrants settled here in the early 20t h century? William Grimes, the runaway slave, found it to be a "safe haven", by using it to shelter him from the shackles of slavery. He was buried in the Grove Cemetery in New Haven, CT. with other Yale dignitaries. Other answers can found in crypts under the Center Church on the Green, where there is an ancient cemetery with gravestones from 1687 to 1812. Fortunately and historically, the New Haven Crypt is one of the exceptional colonial burial grounds to remain untouched. There are 137 grave stones of New Haven 's founders and earliest citizens dating from 1687, Benedict Arnold's first wife, President Rutherford Hayes' family, the Reverend James Pierpont, a founder of Yale College, and Sarah Whiting, 1669-1726. In 1813, Center Church was built over a small portion of the town's burial ground. All the remains and gravestones were left in their original positions to be protected by the church's foundation where a crypt was created. The Crypt and other historical places, like the New Haven Historical Society will provide information on the New Haven's early settlers. Over three hundred and seventy-five years of history has been preserved at the New Haven Museum. New Haven grew from a puritan village into a major industrial centre, and now a major metropolitan area. For students who may be able to trace their families back to the origins of New Haven, they may turn to The Center Church on the Green.

Many answers could be found in cemeteries when "Exploring Bloodlines through Immigration and Migration." During April 2012, my family presented an Amtrak train ride from Connecticut to the Birthplace of Thelonious Monk in Rocky Mount, N.C.,(our famous cousin and jazz genre), to be included in our historical excursion to Newton Grove, N.C. We were so excited to be MONKs! Because, we were taking a historical train ride back to North Carolina, AND walking in the same footsteps as our ancestors. We take stock in North Carolina, because it is our ancestral home and where our family originated. Most families seldom have the chance to join in unity, unless they happen to unite at a wedding or funeral. But my Monk Family Bloodline traveled from Connecticut by railway to North Carolina between the principal stations in New York and Washington, D.C. to reach Rocky MT. and Newton Grove, N.C., picking up family members to explore our ancestral grounds and family artifacts.

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1) The students will develop historical thinking skills, including chronological thinking and recognizing change over time; contextualizing, comprehending and analyzing historical literature; researching historical sources; understanding the concept of historical causation; understanding competing narratives and interpretation; and constructing narratives and interpretation.

- Interpret oral traditions and legends as "histories".

- Evaluate data within the historical, social, political and economic context in which it was created, testing its credibility and evaluating its bias.

- Describe the multiple intersecting causes of events.

- Use primary source documents to analyze multiple perspectives

2) The students will use historical thinking skills to develop an understanding of the major historical periods, issues and trends in United States history, world history, and Connecticut and local history.

- Demonstrate a familiarity with peoples, events and places from a broad spectrum of human experience through selected study from historical periods and from the various regions (e.g., East Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa, South Asia, and West Asia).

- Locate the events, peoples and places they have studied in time and place (e.g., on a time line and map) relative to their own location.

- Explain relationships among the events and trends studied in local, national and world history.

3) The students will recognize the continuing importance of historical thinking and historical knowledge in their own lives and in the world in which they live.

- Be active learners at cultural institutions, such as museums and historical exhibitions.

- Display empathy for people who have lived in the past.

- Describe relationships between historical subject matter and other subjects they study, current issues and personal concerns.

4) The students will interpret spatial patterns of human migration, economic activities and political units in Connecticut, the nation and the world.

- Describe the consequences of human population patterns and growth trends over time.

- Explain the characteristics, distribution and relationships of economic systems at various levels.

- Draw a freehand or create a map demonstrating political, cultural or economic relationships.

- Compare and Contrast maps of migration concerning the early settlers from Connecticut.

- Draw a freehand or create a map by exploring bloodlines through Immigration and Migration

5) The students will learn more about New Haven's History

- Visit different historical landmarks in the New Haven area (The Crypt, Grove Cemetery, Underground Railroad, etc…)

- Read journals and articles in reference to New Haven History

- Explore the migration of early settlers who are remembered there which represent a cross-section of the original community: different social standing, different points of view.

6) The students will understand the visual arts in relation to history and cultures.

- Select an anticipated audience

- Write 2-4 page Research Essay (Organize the documentary by choosing one of these writing projects.)

- 1-2 Page Written Treatment (Treatment: A description of the documentary.)

- Gather digital Artifacts

- Create Storyboard

- Make the Documentary

- Assessing the Documentary

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Implementing District Standards History/Social Studies 11-12 RH

Key Ideas and Details

11-12.RH.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

11-12.RH.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

11-12.RH.3 Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

11-12.RH.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

11-12.RH.8 Evaluate an author's premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.

11-12.RH.9 Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.

Production and Distribution of Writing

11-12.WH.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

11-12.WH.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

11-12.WH.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

11-12.WH.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

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In this significant task, students will study immigrant life in the United States as the turn of the century. They will consider the factors that drove immigrants to risk everything to come to the United States, as well as examining the life available to immigrants once they arrived. First, they will interview different family members to learn more about their bloodline. Then they will consider their own connection to immigration by creating a class bloodline map. Next, they will conduct research on immigration patterns through analyzing tables of the origin of immigrants and where they settled upon arrival. Finally, students will gain insight into immigrant life through primary source research and the creation of a documentary of a young immigrant in the United States.

LESSON ONE: Vocabulary and Assessment

Essential Vocabulary

1. Urbanization
2. Culture
3. Immigration
4. Values
5. Socio-economic

Assessment Questions

Was America transformed by immigration?

LESSON TWO: Family Crest

Attached is the sheet the students will fill out concerning their crest

Target Audience

High school juniors and seniors use the Oshel website the most. (There are links below) They enjoy looking up the symbols and colors, and what they represent. In the assignment the students learn about family crests, and then they create a crest of their own in Photoshop.

Start by showing the crests for your family – For example: Monk and Cole

The two families are a good contrast since Monk is a very old name with a simple crest and Cole is more ornate. (Traditionally if the crest is simple it's an older crest, this holds true for all nationalities that use the crest). Crests were also used to identify you in battle and they were awarded for some act of valor or bravery.

EXAMPLE: Devlin (you can google the crest on-line) is an old name it means "of black pond". Most other Irish surnames derive from a person, like O'Connor (King Connor MacNessa) but Devlin is an exception.

MOTTO: Mea Crux Stella meaning the cross will be my guide. The kids enjoy the mottos. They can get pretty interesting.

COLORS: Azure: Loyalty and truth. Gold: Generosity and elevation of the mind.

SYMBOLS: The stars are actually called mullets they are symbolic of divine quality from above

The Celtic Cross is the symbol of a defender of the faith.

A symbol above the crest is something that has been awarded at a later time, usually for a significant act. Griffin above the Devlin crest is an overarching symbol of Valour and death-defying bravery; vigilance.

Every year the students who are of African American decent question their last name, that it's not really their family. Explain that this is a lesson, and symbolism. Also, explain that all family might not have a family crest, as well that there are other nationalities cannot trace their ancestry due to war and/or lack of records.


Crest info:




Before you begin to work on a crest for your origin you will need to research crests, heraldry and heraldic symbols. Students will view a video about how they acquired their last names.

1.What is a crest (also known as a Coat of Arms?

2.What was the original purpose of the Coat of Arms?

3.Do you have a family crest? Type in your family's last name (if you cannot find one for your last name try your mother's maiden name or a grandparents name).

4. If you do have a crest what do the symbols mean? Do you have a family motto?

5. Go to Google, type in "crest and symbols" this will give you a list of heraldic symbols. Write down at least 5 symbols and what they mean.

Examples: Azure or blue stands for loyalty and truth. A Lion represents courage.






If you are ready to begin your crest open a 5"x7" Photoshop file with a resolution of 200DPI.

LESSON THREE: Interviews

Teachers will provide historical resources (see links) for students' to use to research immigrants' lives in the United States. In their interviews, students will present a profile, which will include the information about the following.

1) Who they are (name, age, and nationality)
2) Where they came from?
3) Why they came?
4) When they came?
5) Where they settled and why?
6) How they made a living

LESSON FOUR: Mapping Bloodlines

Part 1: Class Heritage Map

As preparation for this activity, students will be assigned homework (Williams, Andrew/ Mason, Regina, The Life of William Grimes and Korrol, Virginia E. Sanchez, From Colonia to Community, The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917-1948) to research their family heritage. Not only should they find out from where their families immigrated, but also (if possible, why their ancestors came to the United States.

Essential Skills

1. Create a map of immigration patterns (Use prezi.com) for presentation)
2. Judge the impact of immigration on American culture.
3. Analyze tables and statistics of immigration.
4. Read and analyze primary source documents and photographs.

On the day of the mapping activity, the teacher will provide computer access to prezi.com. Each student will add photographs, videos, and other information relevant to their family bloodline.

LESSON FIVE: Migration Documentary


It is important that teachers are sensitive to the needs and feelings of these students. It is as equally meaningful to report that your family came from Germany to escape the Holocaust as it is to report that your family came from North Carolina for economic opportunities in the industrial north.

Each student will:

- Select an anticipated audience

- Write 2-4 page Research Essay (Organize the documentary by choosing one of these writing projects.)

- 1-2 Page Written Treatment (Treatment: A description of the documentary.)

- Gather digital Artifacts

- Create Storyboard

- Make the Documentary

- Assess the Documentary

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Bibliography for Teachers

Andrews, William L., and Regina E. Mason, Life of William Grimes, The Runaway Slave, Regina E. Mason, a direct descendant of a runaway slave, was able to map the trails of her ancestors, and trace her roots to New Haven, CT. In 2008, with Professor William L. Andrews, she co-edited her great, great father's autobiography, Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave; which Grimes wrote and self-published in 1855.

Davila, Arlene, Barrios Dreams, Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and The Neoliberal City.

This book examines the cultural politics of urban space in New York's East Harlem (also known as El Barrio or Spanish Harlem) in the context of rapid gentrification and social change.

Grossman, James R., Land of Hope, Chicago, Black Southerners, and Great Migration.

This book elaborates on how The Great Migration turned the attention of thousands of black southerners toward a northern industrial world previously marginal to their consciousness.

Homberger, Eric, The Historical Atlas of New York City,

An endless collection of maps, drawings, photographs, and illuminating research of the fascinating City of New York. "A beautifully produced reference work of the five little boroughs.

Jacobs, Harriet A., Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself.

Published in 1861, this was one of the first personal narratives by a slave and one of the few written by a woman. Jacobs (1813-97) was a slave in North Carolina and escape by boat to New York.

Korrol, Virginia E. Sanchez, From Colonia to Community, The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917-1948.

It explores the development of the Puerto Rican settlements, or colonias, in New York City during the first four decades of the century and demonstrates the existence of an identifiable migrant community during that period.

Reading List for Students

Andrews, William L., and Regina E. Mason, Life of William Grimes, The Runaway Slave, Regina E. Mason, a direct descendant of a runaway slave, was able to map the trails of her ancestors, and trace her roots to New Haven, CT. In 2008, with Professor William L. Andrews, she co-edited her great, great father's autobiography, Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave; which Grimes wrote and self-published in 1855.

Davila, Arlene, Barrios Dreams, Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and The Neoliberal City.

This book examines the cultural politics of urban space in New York's East Harlem (also known as El Barrio or Spanish Harlem) in the context of rapid gentrification and social change.

Homberger, Eric, The Historical Atlas of New York City,

An endless collection of maps, drawings, photographs, and illuminating research of the fascinating City of New York. "A beautifully produced reference work of the five little boroughs

Materials for Classroom Use

1) Access to Internet

2) Construction Paper

3) Magic Markers

4) Highlighters

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