Geoffrey P. Smith
It is becoming increasingly important for all students to have some level of computer literacy. It is reasonable to predict that within the lifetime of the children now in New Haven Public Schools, most homes will have a microcomputer. Even for those students who may not use computers, the influence of computers on their lives will be enormous. It is incumbent on us now to begin making our students familiar with the powers and limitations of computers.
This unit contains three computer programs which can be used by any teacher interested in introducing the computer to a classroom. The programs are mathrelated, but they could be used in any type of classroom, because the objectives of this unit are to expose students to the process of computer use and to make students familiar with the hardware. The purpose does not include teaching programming or technical information.
In each case, the teacher loads the program from a cassette tape ahead of time, and the students only need to type appropriate information in response to directions given on the video screen. The machine used is the TRS80 Model I, Level II, although the programs will also work on a TRS80 Model III. The cassette is available from the Yale Institute office. A sample run of each program is listed here, plus a listing of the first program, for reasons given in Part I, below. Listings of the other two programs can be made from the tape, or can be obtained from the author.
Part I
The first program given here is intended to introduce the student to the operation of the computer as an aid in arithmetic calculation. The student types words or numbers on the keyboard; the computer responds with results, comments, or directions. The kinds of problems allowed are those which any simple calculator could handle. The student has the choice of doing addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, and can type in either whole numbers or decimals.
The most appropriate audience is students in grades 58, although the program could be used with either younger or older students. The program is intended to be studentproof,
i.e.
, all kinds of possible student errors are anticipated and the computer will respond with helpful comments or suggestions.
In addition to the general objectives described in the introduction, this program was written with the thought that some students might want to see the program itself. Almost every allowable Radio Shack BASIC Level II command has been included in this program, and it is liberally sprinkled with “remarks” to make each step in the logic clear. Thus an interested student could look at particular parts of the program (or the whole thing, but that’s a lot), to see how one person has used different commands to solve a particular kind of problem. For this reason, a listing of this program is included, after the sample run which follows. Entries made by the student or teacher are shown in lowercase type and underlined.
run
____
(clear screen)
HELLO. MY NAME IS SAM.
I CAN HELP YOU DO ALL KINDS OF
ARITHMETIC PROBLEMS.
IF YOU HAVE USED ME BEFORE,
YOU MAY WANT TO SKIP THE
DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS. HOWEVER,
HERE IS ONE RULE I WILL SAY NOW:
____
ALWAYS HIT THE ‘ENTER’ KEY
____
(THAT’S THE WHITE KEY)
____
WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED
____
TYPING AN ANSWER.
PRESS ‘ENTER’ NOW TO CONTINUE?
____
(clear screen)
FIRST, LET’S GET ACQUAINTED.
I’VE TOLD YOU MY NAME IS SAM.
WOULD YOU PLEASE
TYPE IN YOUR NAME?
geoff
IT IS A PLEASURE TO MEET YOU,
GEOFF.
I WILL DO MANY ARITHMETIC
PROBLEMS FOR YOU AS YOU
LEARN HOW TO USE ME.
PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE?
____
(clear screen)
NOW, DOWN TO BUSINESS, GEOFF
DO YOU WANT THE DETAILED
INSTRUCTIONS? yes
____
(clear screen)
THERE ARE JUST THREE RULES YOU
NEED TO REMEMBER FOR NOW.
1. ALWAYS HIT THE ‘ENTER’ KEY
____
WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED
____
TYPING THE NUMBERS OR WORDS
____
YOU WANT TO TELL ME.
____
(clear screen)
2. HIT THE ‘BREAK’ KEY IF YOU
____
WANT TO STOP FOR THE DAY
____
OR IF I START TO ACT CRAZY.
____
(ME? CRAZY? HO! HO! HO!)
____
(clear screen)
3. USE THE ‘BACK ARROW’ KEY
IF YOU WANT TO ERASE
SOMETHING YOU HAVE TYPED.
(THAT’S THE KEY ON THE RIGHT
SIDE OF THE BOARD WITH THE
ARROW POINTING TO THE LEFT)
DO YOU THINK YOU CAN
REMEMBER THESE RULES, NOW?
yes
____
(clear screen)
WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO:
____
1. ADDITION
____
2. SUBTRACTION
____
3. MULTIPLICATION
____
4. DIVISION
WHICH KIND OF PROBLEM (NUMBER 1, 2, 3, OR 4) DO YOU WANT TO TRY?
1
____
(clear screen)
ADDITION IT IS, GEOFF.
TYPE IN THE TWO NUMBERS YOU
WANT ADDED, SEPARATED BY A
COMMA.
I WILL SHOW YOU WHAT I MEAN:
____
(clear screen)
********************************
* EXPLANATION FOR

*

* TYPING IN NUMBERS

*

********************************
IF YOU WANT TO HAVE ME
(FOR EXAMPLE)
USE THE NUMBERS SIX AND THREE
THEN TYPE: 6,3
PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE?
DO NOT USE COMMAS IN WRITING LARGE NUMBERS.
____
(clear screen)
IF YOU WANT TO HAVE ME
(FOR ANOTHER EXAMPLE)
USE THE NUMBERS TWENTY THOUSAND
AND THIRTY THOUSAND,
THEN TYPE: 20000,30000

(NOTE JUST ONE COMMA

BETWEEN THE NUMBERS)

IF YOU TYPE: 20,000, 30,000
THE EXTRA COMMAS WILL JUST
CONFUSE ME. OKAY?
PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE?
WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS?
54,32
____
(clear screen)
54 + 32 = 86
WANT TO TRY ANOTHER ADDITION
PROBLEM?
no
WANT TO TRY ANOTHER KIND OF
PROBLEM? yes
____
(clear screen)
WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO:
____
1. ADDITION
____
2. SUBTRACTION
____
3. MULTIPLICATION
____
4. DIVISION
WHICH KIND OF PROBLEM
(NUMBER 1, 2, 3, OR 4) DO
YOU WANT TO TRY?
4
____
(clear screen)
YOU REALLY WANT ME TO WORK, DON’T YOU, GEOFF? DIVISION IS HARD, BUT I’LL SHOW YOU HOW FAST IT CAN BE DONE!
TYPE THE TWO NUMBERS YOU WANT DIVIDED, SEPARATED BY A COMMA.
WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS?
24,6
____
(clear screen)
24 / 6 = 4
THAT WASN’T SO HARD, GEOFF!
WANT TO SEE ME DO ANY MORE
DIVISION PROBLEMS?
yes
WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS? 24,7
____
(clear screen)
DON’T WORRY, I’LL DO THAT PROBLEM, GEOFF. I’M NOT STALLING  BUT FIRST YOU HAVE TO MAKE A DECISION ABOUT THE REMAINDER.
____
(YES, YOU GAVE ME
____
A PROBLEM THAT HAS
____
A REMAINDER.)
I CAN DO REMAINDERS THREE WAYS.
PRESS ‘ENTER’ FOR EXPLANATION
OF THREE WAYS?
____
(clear screen)
DO YOU WANT THE REMAINDER AS
1. A WHOLE NUMBER
LIKE: 6/4 = 1 R 2
2. A DECIMAL FRACTION
LIKE: 6/4 = 1.5
3. A COMMON FRACTION
____
IN SIMPLEST FORM
LIKE: 6/4 = 1 1/2
TYPE THE NUMBER FOR THE WAY YOU
WANT THE REMAINDER EXPRESSED.
WHICH?
1
____
(clear screen)
____
24 / 7 = 3 R 3
SEE, I TOLD YOU I COULD DO IT.
WANT TO SEE ME DO ANY MORE
DIVISION PROBLEMS?
no
WANT TO TRY ANOTHER KIND OF
PROBLEM?
no
WELL, I’M READY NOW TO MEET SOMEONE ELSE.
SO, GOODBYE, GEOFF,
WE CAN WORK AGAIN ON
ANOTHER DAY. LET A NEW PERSON HAVE A TURN FOR AWHILE.
NEXT .. . .
FIRST, LET’S GET ACQUAINTED.
I’VE TOLD YOU MY NAME IS SAM.
WOULD YOU PLEASE
TYPE IN YOUR NAME?
BREAK IN 90
READY
list

(listing begins on

next page)


5 REM  INTRODUCTORY PROGRAM 

10 REM  SAM, THE COMPUTER, CAN HELP YOU DO ARITHMETIC.

20 REM  STRING VARIABLES USED IN THIS PROGRAM:

25 DEFSTR N,R

30 ON ERROR GOTO 8000

35 ST=O: T=1

36 REM  ‘ST’ WILL COUNT THE STUDENTS USING THE PROGRAM

37 REM  ‘T’ IS USED TO LOCATE WHERE YOU ARE IN THE PROGRAM

38 REM (USEFUL FOR ‘RETURN’ AFTER ERROR SUBROUTINE)

39 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

40 PRINT “HELLO. MY NAME IS SAM.”: PRINT

45 PRINT “I CAN HELP YOU DO ALL KINDS OF”

46 PRINT “ARITHMETIC PROBLEMS.”

47 FOR I=1 TO 2000: NEXT I: PRINT

50 PRINT “IF YOU HAVE USED ME BEFORE,”

51 PRINT “YOU MAY WANT TO SKIP THE”

55 PRINT “DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS. HOWEVER,”

60 PRINT “HERE IS ONE RULE I WILL SAY NOW:”

65 PRINT: PRINT TAB(5) “ALWAYS HIT THE ‘ENTER’ KEY”

70 PRINT TAB(5) “(THAT’S THE WHITE KEY3”

75 PRINT TAB(5) “WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED”

76 PRINT TAB(5) “TYPING AN ANSWER.”

78 PRINT: INPUT “PRESS ‘ENTER’ NOW TO CONTINUE”;N1

80 REM  MUTUAL INTRODUCTION FOLLOWS:

82 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): T=2

84 PRINT “FIRST, LET’S GET ACQUAINTED.”

86 PRINT “I’VE TOLD YOU MY NAME IS SAM.”

88 PRINT “WOULD YOU PLEASE”

90 INPUT “TYPE IN YOUR NAME”;NM

92 IF NM=”YES” THEN 90

94 IF NM=”NO” THEN 86

96 PRINT “IT IS A PLEASURE TO MEET YOU,”

98 PRINT NM;”.”: IF NM=”SAM” PRINT “ WHAT A GREAT NAME!”

100 ST=ST+1: REM  COUNTING THE STUDENTS USING SAM

102 PRINT: PRINT

104 PRINT “I WILL DO MANY ARITHMETIC”

106 PRINT “PROBLEMS FOR YOU AS YOU”

108 PRINT “LEARN HOW TO USE ME.”

110 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT “PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE”;N2

112 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): T=3

114 PRINT “NOW, DOWN TO BUSINESS, “;NM

116 PRINT “DO YOU WANT THE DETAILED”

118 INPUT “INSTRUCTIONS”;R1

120 IF R1=”YES” THEN 200

122 REM  DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOLLOW LINE 200

124 IF R1=”NO” THEN 395

126 PRINT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE.”

128 GOTO 116

200 REM  DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS:

205 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): LV=1

206 REM  ‘LV’ IS THE STUDENT LEVEL. ‘1’ MEANS BEGINNER

207 REM (BECAUSE STUDENT REQUESTED INSTRUCTIONS)

210 PRINT “THERE ARE JUST THREE RULES YOU”

211 PRINT “NEED TO REMEMBER FOR NOW.”

215 PRINT 320, “ “

220 PRINT “1. ALWAYS HIT THE ‘ENTER’ KEY”

221 PRINT “ WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED”

225 PRINT “ TYPING THE NUMBERS OR WORDS”

230 PRINT “ YOU WANT TO TELL ME.”

231 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

232 IF LV=2 GOTO 245

240 PRINT 320, “ “

245 PRINT “2. HIT THE ‘BREAK’ KEY IF YOU”

246 PRINT “ WANT TO STOP FOR THE DAY”

247 PRINT “ OR IF I START TO ACT CRAZY.”

248 IF LV=2 GOTO 250

249 PRINT “ (ME? CRAZY? HO! HO! HO!)”

250 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

251 IF LV=2 GOTO 255

253 PRINT 320, “ “

255 PRINT “3. USE THE ‘BACK ARROW’ KEY”

256 PRINT “ IF YOU WANT TO ERASE”

257 PRINT “ SOMETHING YOU HAVE TYPED.”: IF LV=2 THEN 261

258 PRINT “ (THAT’S THE KEY ON THE RIGHT”

259 PRINT “ SIDE OF THE BOARD WITH THE”

260 PRINT “ ARROW POINTING TO THE LEFT)”

261 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

262 PRINT: PRINT: T=4

263 PRINT “DO YOU THINK YOU CAN”

264 INPUT “REMEMBER THESE RULES, NOW”;R2

265 IF R2=”YES” THEN 397

270 IF R2=”NO” THEN 280

275 PRINT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE.”: GOTO 263

280 LV=2: CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): PRINT “HERE THEY ARE AGAIN:”

282 GOTO 220

285 REM  ‘LEVEL 2, BECAUSE THE STUDENT IS REVIEWING THE RULES

395 LV=3

396 REM  ‘LEVEL 3’ BECAUSE THE STUDENT SKIPPED INSTRUCTIONS

397 PR=0

398 REM  ‘PR’ WILL COUNT THE NUMBER OF PROBLEMS DONE

399 REM (MAXIMUM OF SIX PER STUDENT)

400 REM  CHOICE OF OPERATIONS FOLLOWS:

410 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): PRINT “WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO:”

420 PRINT TAB(5) “1. ADDITION”

430 PRINT TAB(5) “2. SUBTRACTION”

440 PRINT TAB(5) “3. MULTIPLICATION”

450 PRINT TAB(5) “4. DIVISION”

460 PRINT: PRINT: T=5

470 PRINT “WHICH KIND OF PROBLEM”

471 PRINT “(NUMBER 1, 2, 3, OR 4) DO”

475 INPUT “YOU WANT TO TRY”;C1

480 ON C1 GOTO 500, 600, 700, 800

490 PRINT “PERHAPS YOU MISUNDERSTOOD.”

495 PRINT “TYPE ONLY THE NUMBER 1, 2,”

496 PRINT “3, OR 4.”: GOTO 470

500 REM  ADDITION PROBLEMS

510 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): PRINT “ADDITION IT IS, “;NM;”.”

520 PRINT “TYPE IN THE TWO NUMBERS YOU”

521 PRINT “WANT ADDED, SEPARATED BY A”

522 PRINT “COMMA.”

530 IF LV=1 OR LV=2 GOSUB 9000

535 PRINT: INPUT “WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS”;A1,A2

540 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

545 PRINT 260, A1;” + “;A2;” = “;A1+A2

550 PR=PR+1

555 IF PR>5 GOTO 1000

560 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: T=6

565 PRINT “WANT TO TRY ANOTHER ADDITION”

566 INPUT “PROBLEM”;R3

570 V=0: REM  ‘V’ DEFINED BY AND FOR SUBROUTINE 9100

575 IF R3=”YES” THEN 535

580 IF R3=”NO” GOSUB 9100

585 ON V+1 GOTO 590, 400, 1000

590 INPUT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE”;R3

595 GOTO 575

600 REM  SUBTRACTION PROBLEMS

605 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

606 PRINT “OKAY, COMING RIGHT UP, “;NM;”.”

607 PRINT TAB(5) “   SUBTRACTION   ”

610 PRINT: PRINT “TYPE IN THE TWO NUMBERS YOU”

611 PRINT “WANT SUBTRACTED, SEPARATED”

615 PRINT “BY A COMMA.”

620 IF LV=1 GOSUB 9000

625 PRINT: INPUT “WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS”;M,S

630 IF M>=S THEN 642

631 PRINT “DID YOU MEAN TO HAVE THE LARGER”

632 PRINT “NUMBER SUBTRACTED FROM THE”

633 INPUT “SMALLER NUMBER”;R4

635 IF R4=”YES” THEN 642

637 PRINT “I’LL SWITCH THEM AROUND THE”

638 PRINT “OTHER WAY, “;NM;”.”

639 H=M: M=S: S=H

640 FOR I=1 TO 1000: NEXT I

642 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

645 PRINT 260, M;”  “;S;” = “;MS

650 PR=PR+1

655 IF PR>5 THEN 1000

660 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT

665 PRINT “WANT TO TRY ANOTHER”

667 INPUT “SUBTRACTION PROBLEM”;R5

670 V=0: T=7

675 IF R5=”YES” THEN 625

680 IF R5=”NO” GOSUB 9100

685 ON V+1 GOTO 690, 400, 1000

690 INPUT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE”;R5

695 GOTO 675

700 REM  MULTIPLICATION PROBLEMS

705 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

706 PRINT “OKAY, “;NM;”,”

707 PRINT “WE’LL DO MULTIPLICATION.”

710 PRINT “TYPE IN THE TWO NUMBERS YOU”

711 PRINT “WANT MULTIPLIED, SEPARATED BY”

715 PRINT “A COMMA.”

720 IF LV=2 GOSUB 9000

725 PRINT: INPUT “WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS”;F1 ,F2

735 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

745 PRINT 260, F1;” X “;F2;” = “;F1*F2

750 PR=PR+1

755 IF PR>5 GOTO 1000

760 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT

765 PRINT “WANT TO HAVE ME DO MORE”

766 INPUT “MULTIPLICATION”;R6

770 V=0: T=8

775 IF R6=”YES” THEN 725

780 IF R6=”NO” GOSUB 9100

785 ON V+1 GOTO 790, 400, 1000

790 INPUT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE”;R6

795 GOTO 775

800 REM  DIVISION PROBLEMS

805 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

806 PRINT “YOU REALLY WANT ME TO WORK,”

807 PRINT “DON’T YOU, “;NM;”? DIVISION”

810 PRINT “IS HARD, BUT I’LL SHOW YOU”

812 PRINT “HOW FAST IT CAN BE DONE!”

815 PRINT: PRINT “TYPE THE TWO NUMBERS YOU”

816 PRINT “WANT DIVIDED, SEPARATED BY”

820 PRINT “A COMMA.”: T=9: DP=1: REM  ‘DP’ COUNTS IN 9200 SUBR

825 IF LV=3 GOTO 850

830 PRINT “BE SURE TO PUT THE NUMBER YOU”

831 PRINT “WANT DIVIDED FIRST AND THE”

832 PRINT “NUMBER YOU WANT TO DIVIDE BY”

833 PRINT “SECOND.”

834 FOR I=1 TO 4000: NEXT I

835 IF LV=1 GOTO 848

836 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

837 PRINT “FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU TYPE: 6,3”

838 PRINT TAB(5) “I WILL SAY: 6/3 = 2”

840 PRINT “HOWEVER, IF YOU TYPE: 3,6”

842 PRINT TAB(5) “I WILL SAY: 3/6 = 1/2”

844 PRINT “SO YOU SEE, “;NM;,”

845 PRINT “IT MAKES A DIFFERENCE”

846 PRINT “WHICH ORDER YOU USE.”

847 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

848 LV=3: RKM  ‘LEVEL 3’ TO AVOID REPEATING INSTRUCTIONS

849 PRINT: PRINT “NOW, BE CAREFUL ”

850 PRINT: INPUT “WHAT ARE THE NUMBERS”;DIV,DVI

852 IF DVI>0 THEN 856

854 PRINT “YOU CAN NOT DIVIDE BY ZERO.”

855 PRINT “TRY AGAIN.”: GOTO 849

856 Z=DIV/DVI

858 IF Z=INT(Z) THEN 900

859 IF DIV>INT(DIV) OR DVI>INT(DVI) THEN 900

860 GOSUB 9200

865 ON C3 GOTO 870, 900, 930

870 Q=INT(Z): LF=DIV  Q*DVI

875 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

880 PRINT 260, DIV;”/”;DVI;” = “;Q;” R “;LF

885 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT

890 PRINT “SEE, I TOLD YOU I COULD DO IT.”

895 GOTO 968

900 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

905 PRINT 260, DIV;”/”;DVI;” = “;Z

910 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT

915 PRINT “THAT WASN’T SO HARD, “;NM:”!”

920 GOTO 968

930 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

932 PRINT “OKAY, HOLD ON. I’M WORKING ON”

934 PRINT “FINDING THE SIMPLEST FRACTION.”

936 V2=ABS(DIV): D2=ABS(DVI)

938 W=SGN(DIV*DVI)

940 REM  ‘W’ INDICATES SIGN OF ANSWER

942 Q=INT(V2/D2): LF=V2Q*D2

944 L2=LF: C2=0

950 FOR F=L2 TO 2 STEP l

952 IF C2=1 THEN 960

954 IF L2/F>INT(L2/F) THEN 960

956 IF D2/F>INT(D2/F) THEN 960

958 L2=L2/F: D2=D2/F: C2=l

960 NEXT F

961 IF LF26 THEN 966

962 PRINT “WHEW! THAT WAS REALLY HARD!”

963 PRINT “BUT I GOT IT AT LAST,”

964 PRINT “AND THE ANSWER IS . . .”

966 PRINT: PRINT “ “;DIV;”/”;DVI;” = “;W*Q;” “;L2;”/”;D2

968 PR=PR+1

970 IF PR>5 THEN 1000

972 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT

974 PRINT “WANT TO SEE ME DO ANY MORE”

975 INPUT “DIVISION PROBLEMS”;R7

976 V=0: T=10

978 IF R7=”YES” THEN 850

980 IF R7=”NO” GOSUB 9100

985 ON V+1 GOTO 990, 400, 1000

990 INPUT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE”;R7

995 GOTO 978

1000 REM  CHANGING STUDENTS

1010 IF ST>5 THEN 1100

1012 REM  MAXIMUM OF SIX STUDENTS ALLOWED

1020 PRINT: PRINT “WELL, I’M READY NOW TO MEET”

1022 PRINT “SOMEONE ELSE.”: FOR I=1 TO 1000: NEXT I

1025 PRINT “SO, GOODBYE, “;NM;”,”

1030 PRINT “WE CAN WORK AGAIN ON”

1040 PRINT “ANOTHER DAY. LET A NEW PERSON”

1041 PRINT “HAVE A TURN FOR AWHILE.”

1050 PRINT

1060 PRINT “NEXT . . . .”

1070 GOTO 84

1100 REM  STOPPING FOR THE DAY

1105 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

1110 PRINT “I’M TIRED NOW, AND I WOULD”

1111 PRINT “LIKE TO STOP WORK.”

1120 PRINT “MAYBE AT ANOTHER TIME WE COULD”

1121 PRINT “WORK TOGETHER AGAIN.”

1122 PRINT: PRINT “BYEBYE, “;NM;”.”

1123 PRINT “SAM IS NOT NOW”

1130 GOTO 9999

1998 END

1999 REM  ALL SUBROUTINES FOLLOW 

8000 REM  ERROR MESSAGE SUBROUTINE

8010 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

8020 PRINT “YOU GOOFED!!!”

8030 PRINT “I DON’T KNOW HOW IT HAPPENED”

8035 PRINT “BUT SOMETHING YOU ARE DOING”

8040 PRINT “IS CONFUSING ME.”

8050 PRINT

8060 PRINT “GET HELP FROM YOUR TEACHER”

8065 PRINT “AND I WILL TRY TO GET YOU BACK”

8066 PRINT “WHERE YOU WERE BEFORE.”

8067 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

8070 ON T GOTO 8081, 8082, 8083, 8084, 8085, 8086, 8087, 8088

8071 ON T8 GOTO 8089, 8090, 8091, 8092

8072 T=1

8081 RESUME 40

8082 RESUME 90

8083 RESUME 116

8084 RESUME 263

8085 RESUME 410

8086 RESUME 565

8087 RESUME 665

8088 RESUME 765

8089 RESUME 815

8090 RESUME 974

8091 RESUME 9120

8092 RESUME 9265

8099 RESUME

9000 REM  EXPLANATION FOR TYPING IN NUMBERS SUBROUTINE

9010 LV=3

9015 REM  LEVEL 3 SO THIS WILL NOT BE REPEATED FOR ANY STUDENT

9016 PRINT “I WILL SHOW YOU WHAT I MEAN:”

9017 FOR I=1 TO 3000: NEXT I

9020 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

9025 PRINT “*******************************”

9026 PRINT “* EXPLANATION FOR *”

9027 PRINT “* TYPING IN NUMBERS *”

9028 PRINT “*******************************”

9030 PRINT 384, “IF YOU WANT TO HAVE ME”

9032 PRINT “(FOR EXAMPLE)”

9035 PRINT “USE THE NUMBERS SIX AND THREE”

9040 PRINT “THEN TYPE: 6,3”

9045 PRINT: INPUT “PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE”;N3

9050 PRINT “DO NOT USE COMMAS IN WRITING”

9051 PRINT “LARGE NUMBERS.”

9052 FOR I=1 TO 2000: NEXT I

9055 PRINT 448, “(FOR ANOTHER EXAMPLE)”

9056 PRINT “USE THE NUMBERS TWENTY THOUSAND”

9057 PRINT “AND THIRTY THOUSAND,”

9060 PRINT “THEN TYPE: 20000,30000”

9065 PRINT “ (NOTE JUST ONE COMMA”

9066 PRINT “BETWEEN THE NUMBERS)”

9070 PRINT “IF YOU TYPE:20,000, 30,000”

9075 PRINT “THE EXTRA COMMAS WILL JUST”

9076 PRINT “CONFUSE ME. OKAY?”

9080 INPUT “PRESS ‘ENTER’ TO CONTINUE”;N4

9099 RETURN

9100 REM  CHANGING TYPE OF PROBLEM SUBROUTINE

9110 V=0

9115 REM  ‘V’ WILL SPECIFY WHICH BRANCH THE PROGRAM FOLLOWS

9116 T=11

9120 PRINT “WANT TO TRY ANOTHER KIND OF”

9121 INPUT “PROBLEM”;R8

9130 IF R8=”YES” THEN V=1

9140 IF R8=”NO” THEN V=2

9150 ON V+1 GOTO 9160, 9199, 9199

9160 INPUT “TYPE YES OR NO, PLEASE”;R8

9170 GOTO 9130

9199 RETURN

9200 REM  DIVISION REMAINDER SUBROUTINE

9202 IF DP>1 THEN 9233

9204 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23)

9206 PRINT “DON’T WORRY, I’LL DO THAT”

9210 PRINT “PROBLEM, “;NM;”. I’M NOT”

9215 PRINT “STALLING  BUT FIRST YOU”

9216 PRINT “HAVE TO MAKE A DECISION ABOUT”

9220 PRINT “THE REMAINDER.”: PRINT

9221 PRINT TAB(5) “(YES, YOU GAVE ME”

9222 PRINT TAB(6) “A PROBLEM THAT HAS”

9225 PRINT TAB(6) “A REMINDER.)”

9230 PRINT: PRINT “I CAN DO REMAINDERS THREE WAYS.”

9231 PRINT: PRINT “PRESS ‘ENTER’ FOR EXPLANATION”

9232 INPUT “OF THREE WAYS”;N5

9233 CLS: PRINT CHR$(23): IF DP>2 THEN 9265

9235 PRINT “DO YOU WANT THE REMAINDER AS:”

9236 PRINT “1. A WHOLE NUMBER”

9237 PRINT TAB(6) “LIKE: 6/4 = 1 R 2”

9240 PRINT “2. A DECIMAL FRACTION”

9245 PRINT TAB(6) “LIKE: 6/4 = 1.5”

9250 PRINT “3. A COMMON FRACTION”

9251 PRINT “ IN SIMPLEST FORM”

9255 PRINT TAB(6) “LIKE: 6/4 = 1 1/2

9260 T=12

9265 PRINT “TYPE THE NUMBER FOR THE WAY YOU”

9266 PRINT “WANT THE REMAINDER EXPRESSED.”

9267 IF DP3 THEN 9271

9268 PRINT “1  WHOLE NUMBER”

9269 PRINT “2  DECIMAL”

9270 PRINT “3  FRACTION”

9271 INPUT “WHICH”;C3

9275 IF C3=1 OR C3=2 OR C3=3 THEN 9290

9280 PRINT “PERHAPS YOU MISUNDERSTOOD.”

9285 PRINT “TYPE ONLY THE NUMBERS 1, 2, OR 3.”

9286 GOTO 9271

9290 IF C3=1 AND (DIV0 OR DVIO) THEN 9291 ELSE 9297

9291 PRINT “SORRY, “;NM;”;.I CANNOT DO”

9292 PRINT “WHOLE NUMBER REMAINDERS ON”

9293 PRINT “PROBLEMS INVOLVING NEGATIVE”.

9294 PRINT “NUMBERS. (I GET CONFUSED.)”

9296 PRINT “CHOOSE 2 0R 3.”: GOTO 9271

9297 DP=DP+1

9298 REM  ‘DP’ WILL COUNT THE TIMES THESE DIRECTIONS ARE GIVEN

9299 RETURN

9999 END
Part II
This second program will randomly generate arithmetic problems for the student to do. The intended audience is 7th and 8th Grade students or remedial high school students.
Students can pick the kind of problem they want to work with (whole numbers, fractions, decimals, or percents), the level of difficulty, and the number of problems (up to 10) that they want to do. These choices could also be made by the teacher, as a practice drill for the student. After each student finishes, his/her raw score and percentage score are printed out, with an appropriate comment. The student then can do more problems at the same level, switch to a different level, do a different kind of problem, or stop.
The program also has the capability of allowing students to estimate rather than give precise answers. Depending on the level of difficulty, answers within 10%, 7%, or 4% of the correct response are accepted. In keeping score a penalty of point is subtracted for each wrong guess. Students are given three chances on each problem.
A sample run follows. Entries made by the student or teacher are shown in lowercase type and underlined.
run
____
(clear screen)
HELLO
WOULD YOU PLEASE
TYPE IN YOUR NAME?
vicki
HOW DO YOU DO, VICKI.
DO YOU WANT TO WORK WITH:
____
1. WHOLE NUMBERS
____
2. FRACTIONS
____
3. DECIMALS
____
4. PERCENTS
____
5. WHATEVER I CHOOSE FOR YOU
TYPE 1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5?
5
____
(clear screen)
DECIMALS
NOTE  IT IS OKAY TO ESTIMATE
YOUR ANSWER ON ANY DECIMAL
PROBLEM THAT YOU TRY TO DO.
OKAY, VICKI, NOW
DO YOU WANT TO DO:
____
1. ADDITION
____
2. SUBTRACTION
____
3. MULTIPLICATION
____
4. DIVISION
____
5. WHATEVER I CHOOSE FOR YOU
TYPE 1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5?
2
 SUBTRACT DECIMALS 
CHOOSE THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY,
VICKI:
____
1. BEGINNER
____
2. MEDIUM
____
3. EXPERT
WHICH (TYPE 1, 2, OR 3)?
2
HOW MANY PROBLEMS (1 TO 10)
DO YOU WANT TO DO?
4
31.3  6.32 = ?
25.02
CLOSE ENOUGH
THE EXACT ANSWER IS 24.98
16.54  .09 =?
16.45
CORRECT
29.76  9.92 =?
20
CLOSE ENOUGH
THE EXACT ANSWER IS 19.84
21.96  8.76 =?
30.72
NO, VICKI. TRY AGAIN.
?
29.2
NO, VICKI. TRY AGAIN.
?
27.20
SORRY, VICKI,
THE CORRECT ANSWER IS 13.2
____
(clear screen)
VICKI, YOUR SCORE IS
2.25 OUT OF 4, OR 56%
YOU GOT 1 WRONG
YOU’RE CLOSE TO PASSING,
BUT YOUR SCORE IS STILL NOT
OKAY. KEEP WORKING AT THESE,
VICKI.
____
(clear screen)
DO YOU WANT TO:
1. DO THE SAME KIND OF PROBLEM
2. CHANGE THE DIFFICULTY LEVEL
3. DO ANOTHER KIND OF PROBLEM
4. STOP
TYPE 1, 2, 3, OR 4?
3
DO YOU WANT TO WORK WITH:
____
1. WHOLE NUMBERS
____
2. FRACTIONS
____
3. DECIMALS
____
4. PERCENTS
____
5. WHATEVER I CHOOSE FOR YOU
TYPE 1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5?
2
____
(clear screen)
FRACTIONS
OKAY, VICKI, NOW
DO YOU WANT TO DO:
____
1. ADDITION
____
2. SUBTRACTION
____
3. MULTIPLICATION
____
4. DIVISION
____
5. WHATEVER I CHOOSE FOR YOU
TYPE 1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5?
3
* MULTIPLY FRACTIONS *
CHOOSE THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY,
VICKI:
____
1. BEGINNER
____
2. MEDIUM
____
3. EXPERT
WHICH (TYPE 1, 2, OR 3)?
3
HOW MANY PROBLEMS (1 TO 10)
DO YOU WANT TO DO?
5
TYPE NUMERATOR,COMMA,DENOMINATOR
4/6 X 2/8 = ?
8,48
OKAY, BUT NOT IN SIMPLEST FORM.
TRY AGAIN, VICKI.
?
1,6
VERY GOOD
TYPE NUMERATOR,COMMA,DENOMINATOR
7/7 X 6/9 = ?
2,3
VERY GOOD
TYPE NUMERATOR,COMMA,DENOMINATOR
4/10 X 8/7= ?
16,35
VERY GOOD
TYPE NUMERATOR,COMMA,DENOMINATOR
9/4 X 1/6 = ?
3,8
VERY GOOD
TYPE NUMERATOR,COMMA,DENOMINATOR
5/3 X 7/10 = ?
6,7
NO, NOT RIGHT. TRY AGAIN . .
?
35,30
OKAY, BUT NOT IN SIMPLEST FORM.
TRY AGAIN, VICKI.
?
7,6
VERY GOOD
____
(clear screen)
VICKI, YOUR SCORE IS
4.25 OUT OF 5, OR 85%
YOU GOT 0 WRONG
VERY NICE JOB.
KEEP IT UP.
____
(clear screen)
DO YOU WANT TO:
1. DO THE SAME KIND OF PROBLEM
2. CHANGE THE DIFFICULTY LEVEL
3. DO ANOTHER KIND OF PROBLEM
4. STOP
TYPE 1, 2, 3, OR 4?
4
DOES SOMEONE ELSE WANT A TURN?
TYPE 1 FOR YES, 0 FOR NO?
0
OKAY, THEN, VICKI.
GOODBYE .. .
READY
Part III
This final program will draw the graph of any linear equation, whether given in standard form (AX + BY + C = 0) or in slopeintercept form (Y = MX + B). Students enter the coefficients of the equation and the computer draws the graph. The program is intended to be used in conjunction with an Algebra I class. It is most useful in demonstrating how the picture of the equation changes as the coefficients change. However, it can be used simply as an example of the picture drawing capability of the computer, with students who may or may not have taken Algebra I.
If the xintercept or the yintercept is greater than 500, the graph will not be drawn, but a message will be printed indicating the approximate location of the line. The program works best when the intercepts are less than five.
A sample run follows. Entries made by the student or teacher are shown in lowercase type and underlined.
run
____
(clear screen)
***** CARTESIAN GRAPH *****
DO YOU WANT TO USE

(1) STANDARD FORM:

AX + BY + C


OR (2) SLOPEINTERCEPT FORM: Y = MX + B

TYPE 1 OR 2?
2
____
(clear screen)
GIVEN AN EQUATION IN SLOPEINTERCEPT FORM:
Y = MX + B
TYPE IN THE VALUES OF M AND B, SEPARATED BY A COMMA.
?
2,10
____
(clear screen)
SL= 2
YI= 10
(figure available in print form)
BREAK IN 990
READY
run
____
(clear screen)

***** CARTESIAN GRAPH

*****

DO YOU WANT TO USE (1) STANDARD FORM:

TYPE 1 OR 2?
1


OR (2) SLOPEINTERCEPT FORM:

Y = MX + B

TYPE 1 OR 2?
1
____
(clear screen)
GIVEN AN EQUATION IN STANDARD FORM:
____
AX + BY + C = 0
TYPE IN THE VALUES OF A, B, AND C, SEPARATED BY COMMAS.
?
1,2,3
____
(clear screen)
____
SL= .5
____
YI= 1.5
(figure available in print form)
BREAK IN 990
READY