# Energy, Engines, and the Environment

## CONTENTS OF CURRICULUM UNIT 04.04.06

## Energy and Work: Transformation through Engines

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## Lesson Plans

### Lessons One-Three

The following lessons will include discussions on energy, work and power. Brainstorming and note taking (15 minutes) will precede the laboratory activities (60 minutes) which will then be followed by journal reflection (5 minutes). Lessons 2 and 3 should begin with a 5 minute journal connections writing prompted by one or two questions written on the board.

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Objectives:
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Students will be able to:

- Take measurements in units of grams, (milli)meters, seconds.

- Calculate speed and use photogates to measure speed. Evaluate the effect of different variables on speed.

- Construct a speed versus distance graph. Use the graph to make a prediction.

- Explain power. Rank the amount of power used by various household appliances.

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Materials:

Balance, random objects to “weigh”, timer with photogates, physics stand, car and ramp set, three weights, tape measure, calculator, ruler, graph paper, a few small appliances.

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Procedures:
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Lesson one

1. Ask students to define energy. Brainstorm ideas on board.

2. Brief lecture (10 min) on energy work and power.

3. Conduct measurement activity; assign worksheet for homework.

4. Conduct speed activity.

5. Journal reflection.

Lesson Two

1. Do connections journal writing: What is energy? How does the lab begin to answer that question?

2. Review notes of energy, work and power.

3. Conduct speed prediction activity.

4. Assign lab report (3 days).

5. Ask students to go home and find the ratings on various appliances.

6. Journal reflection.

Lesson Three

1. Connections journal writing. What variables affect speed? What are work and power?

2. Review lab; make sure everyone has data to use for their lab report.

3. Students should read the section from their text on work, energy and power.

4. Students should take out their appliance ratings list from last night (have one of your own to provide students that do not have one).

5. Conduct work, energy and power activity.

6. Journal reflection.

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Assessments:
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1. Complete metric system worksheet for graded homework.

2. Lab report for quiz grades.

3. Journal check at end of unit for test grade.
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### Lessons Four-Seven

The following lessons will include discussions on forms of energy. Brainstorming and note taking (15 minutes) will precede the laboratory activities (60 minutes) which will then be followed by journal reflection (5 minutes). All lessons should begin with a 5 minute journal connections writing which will be prompted by one or two questions that are written on the board.

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Objectives:
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Students will be able to:

- - Calculate the amount of work done by a simple machine.
- - Use units of joules to measure the amount of work done.
- - Analyze the effects of changing force or distance in a simple machine.
- - Identify the relationship between speed and height on a roller coaster.
- - Describe the marble’s motion in terms of energy and conservation of energy.
- - Identify and describe different types of energy.
- - Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.
- - Discuss the energy transformations in a real-life situation.
- - Measure temperature and convert between temperature scales.
- - Measure how the temperature of water increases by adding heat.
- - Discuss the relationship of heat and energy.
- - Calculate efficiency of a heating system.

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Materials:
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Ropes, pulleys, physics stand, spring scale, meter stick, weights, roller coaster, timer and photogate, steel marble, calculator, poster paper, markers, Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometers, beakers, graph paper, water, immersion heater, timer, food coloring, hotplate, colored sand, cafeteria tray, stopwatch, balance, balls of differing mass and size, goggles, apron.

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Procedure:
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Lesson four

- 1. Connections writing: how many different types of energy can you name?
- 2. Begin brain storming on board about types of energy.
- 3. Conduct 15 minute lecture on potential versus kinetic energy. Talk about different types of energy with special emphasis on thermal energy, or heat.
- 4. Do simple machine activity. Assign calculations for homework.
- 5. Journal reflection.

Lesson five

- 1. Connections writing: what is a machine?
- 2. Review notes from yesterday especially potential and kinetic energy.
- 3. Conduct the roller coaster activities.
- 4. Construct a graph of speed versus height for homework.
- 5. Analyze real-life scenarios and decide what type of energy is involved in each scenario.
- 6. Journal reflection.

Lesson six

- 1. Connections writing: what is thermal energy?
- 2. Review notes on heat.
- 3. Do demo of heat activity using the dispersion of food coloring in a beaker of cold water versus hot water.
- 4. Conduct heat activities (measuring heat using a thermometer, immersion heater).
- 5. Assign homework: read CAPT lab and write a problem statement.
- 6. Journal reflection.

Lesson seven

- 1. Connections writing: What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy? What does the law of conservation of energy tell us?
- 2. Review notes of types of energy.
- 3. Review problem statements. Ask for volunteers to share their statements.
- 4. Conduct “Craters” lab (see above).
- 5. Assign lab write up for homework.
- 6. Journal reflection.

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Assessments:
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- 1. Work calculations worksheet.
- 2. Speed versus height graph.
- 3. CAPT lab write up for exam grade.
- 4. Journal check at end of unit for test grade.

### Lesson Eight

The next lesson will focus on engines. The four stroke engine is discussed in greatest detail. Students will do a research paper on an engine. We will visit the Eli Whitney Museum.

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Objectives:

- - Students will be able to:
- - Diagram an Otto engine cycle.
- - Graph the pressure versus volume in an Otto cycle.
- - Complete a research paper on an engine of their choice.

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Materials:
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Laptop computers with internet access, graph paper, art paper.

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Procedure:
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- 1. Introduce students to the four stroke engine cycle.
- 2. Direct student to appropriate websites for engine animations. Have them work in pair to draw their own illustration.
- 3. Give students pressure and volume data for each stroke of the cycle and have them graph the data.
- 4. Assign the research paper and review the rubric for the paper (7 days).

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Assessments:
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- 1. Illustrations and graphs for a quiz grade.
- 2. Research paper for an exam grade.