# Human Nature, Biology, and Social Structure: A Critical Look at WhatScience Can Tell Us About Society

## An Introduction to Mathematical Probability

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After viewing our curriculum units, please take a few minutes to help us understand how the units, which were created by public school teachers, may be useful to others.

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Sample Space
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Example 1:
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Each positive integer from one to five inclusive is written on a piece of paper, and the pieces of paper are shuffled. List a sample space for the outcome of drawing one piece of paper.

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Solution:
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Any one of the five numbers is equally likely to be drawn. The sample space is (1,2,3,4,5).

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Example 2:
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Two jelly beans are to be drawn from a jar known to contain only red jelly beans and green jelly beans. List a sample space for the result of the drawing.

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Solution:
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Since the jelly beans must be red or green, a sample space is

{ (R,G), (R,R), (G,R), (G,G)}

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Exercises
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Complete each statement in exercises 1—4.

- 1.) A ___ ___ is a sample in which each member of a population is equally likely to be selected.
- 2.) A sample is ___ when certain individuals are favored in a selection.
- 3.) The result of an experiment is called an ___ or an ___
- 4.) The set of all possible outcomes is known as a ___.
- 5.) Each letter in the word flower is written on a card and the cards are shuffled. List a sample space for the outcome of drawing one card.
- 6.) Two balls are to be drawn successively from a bag known to contain only yellow balls and purple balls. List a sample space for the experiment.
- 7.) List a sample space that indicates all possible outcomes when two dice are thrown.
- 8.) List a sample space to show all possible outcomes when a family has three children.