# Selected Topics in Astronomy and Space Studies

## Time, Distance and Modern Technology in the Measurement of the Heavens

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## Notes

- 1. For a comprehensive discussion of this tool of the 20th century, see:
Space Based Astronomy: Teacher’s Guide with Activities(National Aeronautics and Space Administration, August 1994), pp.23Ð26.- 2. Serendipities are also wonderful ways to discovery. We have to sensitize the student to their potential.
- 3. We brought a film about black holes to the classroom, and students never again stopped asking questions about these powerful objects. We learned many things because of this.
- 4. “Hubble’s observations that the most distant galaxies are receding from us faster than closer galaxies can be explained if the universe were expanding in a way similar to the way a giant loaf of raisin bread rises.” Donald H. Menzel/Jay Pasachoff, Stars and Planets (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990), p. 125.
- 5.
Space-Based Astronomy: Teacher’s Guide with Activities, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p. 41.- 6. See the standards related to the solar system in:
National Science Education Standards, 1996: 215Ð17.- 7. Check , for example , standard 4 , “Tools for enhancing Discourse,” in the Professional Standards for teaching Mathematics (Reston, Virginia: National Council of Teachers of mathematics, 1991), pp. 35Ð51.
- 8. The speed of light is 300,000 kilometers per second, or 186,000 miles per second. In this essay we prefer to use the metric system as a method of measurement.
- 9. Specially disturbing is the cultural accepted
chupacabrasin the Hispanic community and in particular in the Puerto Rican community. Word of mouth and the press have created an alien; an oppressive alien that, supposely, goes around sucking blood of innocent animals (goats, chickens, dogs, etc), and hovers around the boarderlines of human communities. For people this could be entertaining, but also damaging. “La gente esta embobaa,” they say (People are dizzy). What is interesting is that UFOs could easily exist, but aliens are out of the question. For our students this is important. It is learning our environment and the manipulation of information. It is critical thinking. It is seeing the world unmasked!- 10.
Space-Based Astronomy, 24.- 11. Notice the mathematics of the number one. All we have to do is to keep on adding or subtracting zeros. The number one is also crucial in the solution of equations in the form of the multiplicative inverse. For Example, 6x + 5 = 23
- ____ ____ 6x = 23—5
- ____ ____ 6x = 18
- ____ ____ 6x/6 = 18/6, where 6/6 = 1.
- ____ One is also used in the addition and subtraction of fractions:
- ____ ____ 1/2 + 2/3
- ____ ____ 1/2x 3/3 + 2/3 x 2/2 (again, 3/3 = 1; 2/2 = 1)
- ____ ____ 3/6 + 4/6 = 7/6 = 1 1/6 (again, 6/6 = 1).
- 12. We are interested in finding a telescope from a university. We want a good telescope that people don’t need anymore. We were thinking with Mr. Leger that paying for transportation will be a way to get anyone to donate our school, Vinvent Mauro, a telescope for our students to learn from the sky.
- 13. Menzel 1990: 120Ð24.
- 14.
Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva Espana.- 15. Coatlicue is also Mother Earth. She is depicted in a monumental sculpture of snakes, hands, skulls and hearts.