Air – the combination of gasses (mostly nitrogen and oxygen) that compose the atmosphere above Earth's surface
Atmospheric pressure - force applied by the atmosphere over the surface of the earth, varies with weight of air, and decreases with increasing height
Atmosphere - gases that make up the thin envelope around Earth, about the relative thickness of a sheet of paper placed on a basketball
Atmospheric water vapor – gaseous form of water released to the atmosphere
Barometer - an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
Barometric Pressure- atmospheric pressure as given by a barometer
Carbon Dioxide - gas molecule containing one carbon and two oxygen atoms, important greenhouse gas
Climate - average weather over a long time period
Condensation - the process of vapor changing state to liquid
Density - mass per unit volume
Energy - ability or capacity to do work
Energy Flow - the movement of energy from one area to another (higher to lower is the usual flow)
Evaporation - change of state from liquid to gas, requires energy
Force - application of energy to an object causing it to accelerate
Freezing - change of state from liquid to solid, gives up energy
Gas - state of matter where molecules are moving freely about, can be compressed.
Gravity - universal, invisible force of attraction between two bodies
Greenhouse Gas – gases that trap heat, such as CO2, Methane, water vapor
Heat - energy in the process of being transferred from one body to another because of temperature difference between them.
Heat Transport - the movement of thermal energy
High Pressure Region - center of air mass with higher pressure than surrounding air masses
Humidity - water vapor in the air
Hygrometer - tool used to measure humidity
Isobar - line on a weather map that links areas of equal pressure
Joule - SI unit of energy
Latent Heat - heat released or absorbed to change from one form of a substance to another. As water changes state. Ice to water gives up 80 cal/g whereas water to vapor requires 600 cal/g to change state!
Liquid - state of matter where molecules are sliding past one another, not compressible.
Low Pressure Region - center of air mass with lower pressure than surrounding air masses
Mass - amount of matter in an object
Molecule - atoms combined, such as O2, H2O, CO2
Partial pressure = the pressure of the individual components of a mixture of gases. Add to get total pressure.
Power - energy (work) per unit time (watts)
Pressure - force per unit area
Saturated: evaporation rate = condensation rate
Solar Energy - radiation from the sun
Solid - state of matter where molecules are in a fixed arrangement
Specific Heat - amount of energy that needs to be supplied (or taken away) from one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree. Water has a specific heat of 1 cal/g, ice has 0.5 cal/g, and air has 0.33 cal/g
Sub-saturated: evaporation rate > condensation rate
Supersaturated: evaporation rate condensation rate
Temperature - measure of average speed of atoms and molecules
Telegraph - communication system using wires
Thermonuclear Fusion – lighter nuclei come together to form heavier nuclei under conditions of extreme pressure and heat. E.g., the formation of helium from hydrogen in the Sun's core.
Vapor pressure - partial pressure of water vapor
Volume - the space that something occupies
Water Content - the amount of water vapor in the air
Weather - the current atmospheric conditions
Weight – The force applied by gravity on a body. It is the product of mass and the acceleration due to gravity.
Wind - movement of air along a planet's surface
Work - product of force times distance