Elizabeth T. Lawrence
Rise of the Spanish Empire
, R.B. Merriman (New York, 4 Vols), 1918-1939.
History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic
, William H. Prescott, (10th ed, 1851).
The Structure of Spanish History
, E.L. King, Princeton, New Jersey, 1954.
Christophe Colombe, Etudes d’histoire critique, Harrisse, (The translated letter is from John Fiske’s translation in
The Discovery of America
, the excerpt and emphasis are Mariejol’s).
The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella
, Jean Hippolyte Mariéjol, Keen Translation, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. ed of 1961.
De la Conquista a la Independencia
, Mariano Picon Salas.
La Cultura en La America Hispanica
, Pedro Henr’quez Urena.
The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico
, Bernal Diaz del Castillo.
Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America
, Cabeza De Vaca, (University of New Mexico Press, 1961, 2nd Printing 1984).
A History of Spain
, Rafael Altamira, D. Van Nostrand, New York, 1949.
Concienca intelectual de America
, Carlos Rippoll (New York, 1966).
LESSON PLAN #1
To introduce roleplay in this unit.
The students will be able to “feel” the effects via dramatization, that change aka civilization made on the people it found in the New World and visa versa. Impromptu will be used for dialogue; this lends itself to creativity and usually a positive class participation. This type of exercise also makes historical issues more tangible and meaningful. It’s also a lot of fun!
Cast of Characters
(change around and let everyone try):
A few soldiers
Chief of an Indian tribe (Montezuma)
Props and costumes are simple
Swords, A Spanish Flag, Large Cross, Sheet of paper “parchment” to simulate a formal decree
Brightly colored feathers (headress), Brown robe, helmet and rosary beads.
Suggestions to initiate dialogue (teacher needs to prompt).
Montezuma, wise and powerful in his own rite, hopes to scare off the foreigners from his land. He sees them as demons.
Conquistador Hernado Cortes in an eloquent speech (of which the Indians don’t understand) claims the land and everything on it for the Holy Church and for the good of Spain.
A zealous Roman Catholic Priest or monk was specifically sent over with the army in search of souls. He forces the Indians to embrace our Lord a conversion en masse whether the Indians wanted it or not.
There is much flexibility to this lesson. It is based on the enthusiasm and creativity of the teacher and the willingness of the students to participate. It is a good icebreaker and brings social studies to life at least in the classroom.
LESSON PLAN #2
To acquaint students with Primitive or Latin American Art and history via slides.
The student will study a series of slides dealing with Mayan, Aztec and Inca art. In this lesson, culture and cultural/religious symbolism will also be presented. Students will view the slides and then look up pertinent historical background.
Materials to be used
Set of 15 slides. Included in these slides are ancient ruins such as the Mayan temples at Tulum on the Yucatán Peninsula, El Caracol at Chichen Itza also in the Yucatán and various forms and structures which are part of their culture.
One set of these slides will be at the YaleNew Haven Teachers Institute Office. These slides are available for all teachers who wish to use them in class. The set of slides are in color and can be used in a standard carousel slide projector.
LESSON PLAN #3
To acquaint the student with vocabulary that will be found in a teaching unit on this subject.
The student will learn how to spell the words correctly and to match the words with the given definitions. The student will do this until obtaining at least 90% accuracy. This is not simply an exercise in spelling but to have the students be comfortable with terminology used by the teacher or found in texts which discuss the Unit’s subject matter.
Sample List of Words
(see other List of TermsSpanish to EnglishAppendix A)
The above list is just a sampling of words that can be listed on the board and their meanings (definitions) placed beside them. To have the children think in an orderly fashion, suggest that they alphabetize the words first before copying them down. Also a ditto can be provided as a study guide and then a series of spot quizzes utilizing the MatchUp format can be given.
This type of exercise although very academic, can be a good source of training for students who seldom look up words nor do they force themselves to learn the meanings of words taken out of content.