Weather stations use many instruments to collect weather data in order to make good weather predictions.
Satellite: The first weather satellite was put into orbit in 1960. Weather satellites send back pictures of clouds and storms around the earth.
As the satellite orbits the earth, it turns like a wheel. Pictures taken by the satellite are put together to show cloud patterns. Special cameras aboard the satellite can take infrared pictures to show different surface temperatures. The difference in surface temperature is indicated by different colors. Satellites are especially helpful in areas where there are no weather stations to record weather conditions.
TIROS (Television and Infra-Red Observation Satellite) is equipped with cameras, radiometers, and various measuring devices. The photographs transmitted to earth show clouds land forms, sea ice, snow, and hurricanes. Radiometers measure infrared radiation from the earth and its atmosphere. The data gathered are radioed to earth and converted to temperature maps. The information gathered is used to study the heat balance of the atmosphere from radiation measurements.
Certain types of air masses contain certain cloud patterns. Weather satellites are capable of taking pictures of clouds covering a large area. Once the data is gathered it will aid the meteorologist to formulate what kind of weather the clouds and air masses are likely to bring.
Aneroid Barometer: Air pressure can be measured with an aneroid barometer. This instrument has no liquid in the barometer. The word aneroid means dry. Most of the air is removed from the thin, flexible metal box, diaphragm. The metal box is then closed so that the inside has lower air pressure.
When the outside air pressure increases, it will cause the diaphragm to push in by the higher outside pressure. Higher pressure inside the box pushes the diaphragm outward when the outside pressure is low. When the air pressure changes, a needle will move along a dial indicating. When the outside air pressure increases, the diaphragm pressure inside the box pushes the diaphragm outward when outside pressure is low.
Anemometer: The speed of wind is measured by using an anemometer. An anemometer has spokes and cups on the ends of each spoke to catch the wind. The spokes turn on an axis. The higher the velocity of the wind, the faster the cups move. A cable connects the anemometer and the measuring device. A needle is attached to the anemometer, and a dial moves across a scale to indicate the speed.
Rain Gauge: A rain-gauge is used to measure rainfall. The rain gauge is made up of a funnel and a bucket. Rain is caught in the funnel and drained into the bucket, and a measuring stick is dipped into the bucket to measure the amount of precipitation. Thermometer: Thermometers measure the temperature of air. In the U. S. the common one used is the Fahrenheit scale. On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32 Fahrenheit and boils at 212 Fahrenheit. At 70 Fahrenheit, air temperature is comfortable.
The Celsius scale is another scale used to measure temperature. On the Celsius scale, water freezes at “0” Celsius and boils at 100 Celsius. 20 is the most comfortable weather.
Meteorologists use the Celsius scale, but the temperatures are made known to the public as Fahrenheit temperatures because of familiarity.
The principle that thermometers work on is that most things expand when heated and contracts when cooled. The common household thermometer is a hollow glass tube closed on both ends and a liquid inside. Heat causes the liquid to expand and move up the tube.
Computer: Computers gather information from around the world. They draw complex weather maps indicating the location of air masses and how they are likely to move. The maps that are shown by the television