# Engineering in the K-12 Classroom: Math and Science Education for the 21st-Century Workforce

## CONTENTS OF CURRICULUM UNIT 12.04.04

## Animating a Nuclear Process

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## Appendix A:
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Next Generation Science Standards (National Draft, May 2012)
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### HS.PS-NP Nuclear Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

- a. Construct models to explain changes in nuclear energies during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay and the nuclear interactions that determine nuclear stability. [Assessment Boundary: Models to exclude mathematical representations. Radioactive decays limited to alpha, beta, and gamma.]
- b. Analyze and interpret data sets to determine the age of samples (rocks, organic material) using the mathematical model of radioactive decay. [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical model limited to graphical representations.]
- c. Ask questions and make claims about the relative merits of nuclear processes compared to other types of energy production. [Clarification Statement: Students are given data about energy production methods, such as burning coal versus using nuclear reactors.] [Assessment Boundary: Students only analyze data provided. Merits only include economic, safety, and environmental]

### Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 9-12 builds from grades K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and explanatory models and simulations.

Â· Ask questions that challenge the premise of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design. (c)

### Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and constructing models to predict and explain relationships between systems and their components in the natural and designed world.

Â· Construct, revise, and use models to predict and explain relationships between systems and their components. (a)

### Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Â· Use tools, technologies, and models (e.g., computational, mathematical) to generate and analyze data in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. (b),(c)

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9-12 level builds on K-8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Students also use and create simple computational simulations based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Â· Use statistical and mathematical techniques and structure data (e.g., displays, tables, and graphs) to find regularities, patterns (e.g., fitting mathematical curves to data), and relationships in data. (b)