# An Introduction to Aerodynamics

## CONTENTS OF CURRICULUM UNIT 88.06.07

- Table of Content
- 1. Rationale for the Unit
- 1. General Objectives
- 3. Content and Specific Objectives for the Unit
- Navigation and Spherical Geometry
- The Earth’s Surface and Mapping
- 4. Symbols, Diagrams and Definitions Used
- 5. Sample Items Illustrating Some Of The Specific Objectives
- 6. Sample Lesson Plans: #1
- Lesson plan #2
- Lesson plan #3
- References

### Unit Guide

## Aerodynamics: The Mathematical Implications

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## 4. SYMBOLS, DIAGRAMS and DEFINITIONS USED:

- ____ 1) What makes airplane fly:
- ____ ____ C.F = m.v2 f; centrifugal force.
- ____ ____ 1= c p/2 s v.2; lift
- ____ ____ d= c dp/2 s.v3; drag
- ____ ____ cp = p1 2/p2/q; pressure coefficient
- 2) Vector
- ____ AB: position vector.
- 3) Area of simple figures.
- ____ Length = A/W
- ____ width = A/1
- ____ The circle Area = ¹r2
- ____ The Triangle Area = bh/2.
- ____ The trapezoid = 1/2h (b1+b2)
- ____ Volume V = A x h
- 4) The Weight of Material.
- ____ Weight = V x unit weight.
- ____ boardfeet = Area x t (t = thickness of material)
- 5) The Weight of the Airplane:
- ____ Area = span x chord.
- ____ Aspect Ratio = span/chord
- ____ Mean chord = area/span.
- ____ ____ Aspect Ratio is the relationship between the span and the chord. It is important to the flying characteristics of the plane. The mean chord: is the average chord of a tapered wing. It is found by dividing the wing area by the span.

*(figure available in print form)*

- Empty Weight: The weight of the plane without gas.
- Useful Weight: the weight of the plane when passengers, baggage, oil and gasoline are added.
- Gross Weight: The Maximum weight that an aircraft can carry.
- Gross weight = empty weight + useful load.
- Payload: The weight of all the things that can be carried for pay.
- percent payload = payload/gross weight x 100.
- Wing loading: The number of pounds of gross weight that each square foot of wing must support in flight.
- Wing loading = gross weight/wing area
- Power loading: The ratio between weight and engine power.

Datum line: is the base line or horizontal axes

- 6) Airfoil and Wing Ribs:

*(figure available in print form)*

- Vertical Axis: The line running through the leading edge of the airfoil section and perpendicular to the datum line.
- Stations: are points on the datum line from which measurements are taken.
- Upper camber: is the curved line running from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the upper surface of the airfoil.
- Lower camber: is the line from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the lower surface.
- Strength of Material:
- Ultimate tensile strength: The amount of weight a bar one square inch in cross-sectional area will support in tension before it fails. Tensile strength = A x u.t.s (ultimate tensile strength)
- Ultimate compression strength: is the number of pounds one square of material will support in compression before it breaks.
- Compression strength = area x u.c.s (ultimate compression strength)