Purpose: To provide students with an understanding of military life and warfare.
Objectives: Students will learn how Athenian men trained for fighting, their military service, how warfare brought about sports, battle tactics, formations, and weaponry.
Activity: Students will read six handouts, one handout per day and complete question and answer sheets. Students will speculate on how warfare might have affected life in Greek society through classroom discussions.
Materials: Copies of all reading materials, question and answer sheets, and vocabulary guides for each day. In Martin Windrow's The Greek Hoplite, A Citizen's Duty, Every Man an Athlete, Military Service, The Hoplite's Equipment, Battle Formation, Battle Tactics.
Vocabulary: Athens, Classical Period, Hoplite, Metics, Discus, Javelin, Cadets, Tunics, Barracks, Garrison, Public Pension, Cuirass, Greaves, Formations, and Phalanx
Part 1: Direct approach/ 10 minutes.
A. The teacher will begin each lesson by asking students questions which prompt curiosity or interest in the topic to be learned. For example, on day one the concepts of the lesson are introduced as follows. "Why did the citizens of Athens feel it was necessary to always be prepared for war?" "How was society structured in a manner which made it possible for citizens to have time for war?"
B. All students will have five minutes to respond by writing down their answers in their notebooks.
C. Each student will have an opportunity to report his/her answers to the class.
D. The teacher will follow-up student responses and instruct students to write the following statements in their notebooks.
1. "The Greek hoplites were ordinary citizens who were willing to fight to protect their way of life."
2. "Every citizen had a vested interest in society."
3"Citizens had time to fight because most people owned slaves and metics who could conduct daily business."
Part 2: Inquiry/ 15 minutes.
A. The teacher will pass out a copy of each handout to the students.
B. Students will read A Citizen's Duty and answer all problems on the question and answer sheet, using the vocabulary guide to assist them.
C. The teacher will monitor the activity and provide assistance when necessary.
Part 3: Cooperative/ 15 minutes.
A. The teacher will instruct students to provide evidence gathered from their handouts which would prove the above statements correct.
B. Students will report their answers to the class.
C. The teacher will follow-up student responses.
Part 4: Closure/ 5 minutes.
A. The teacher will review the main concepts of the lesson and provide conclusive comments.
B. The teacher will answer any final questions concerning the topic which students may have.
1 Greenbladt, Lemmo. Human Heritage. 1989. pg. 175.
2 Grant, Neil. The Greeks. 1990. pp. 13-14.
3 Burckhardt, Jacob. History of Greek Culture. 1963. pp. 18-23
4 Crow, John A. Greece. The Magic Spring: 1970. Pg- 49.
5 Gibson, Michael. Gods, Men & Monsters. 1977. pp. 6, 7.
6 Gibson, Michael. pg. 41.
7 G ibson, Michael. pg. 41.
8 Gibson, Michael. pp. 53, 56.
9 Grant, Neil. pg. 41.
10 Grant, Neil. pg. 42.
11 Leveque, Pierre. The Greek Adventure. 1968. pp. 217-218.
12 Grant, Neil. pg. 34.
13 Grant, Neil. pg. 35
14 Windrow, Martin. The Greek Hoplite. 1985. pg. 6.
15 Windrow, Martin. pg. 8.
16 Windrow, Martin. pg. 10.
17 Leveque, Pierre. pg. 242.
18 Greenbladt, Lemmo. pp. 159, 160.
19 Leveque, Pierre. pg. 162.
20 Leveque, Pierre. pg. 163.
21 Leveque, Pierre. pp. 165, 166.
22 Leveque, Pierre. pp. 169, 171.
23 Leveque, Pierre. pg. 172.
24 Grant, Neil. pp. 12, 14.
25 Burckhardt, Jacob. pg. 49.
26 Grant, Neil. pg. 14.
27 Crow, John A.. pp. 203-205