# Depicting and Analyzing Data: Enriching Science and Math Curricula through Graphical Displays and Mapping

## CONTENTS OF CURRICULUM UNIT 08.06.04

## Monitoring an Epidemic: Analyzing Through Graphical Displays Factors Relating to the Spread of HIV/AIDS

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## Appendix

### Implementing District Standards

There are two key standards covered in this exploration of graphing and the influence HIV has on the health and growth of human populations. In accordance with district standards, the students will develop their scientific numeracy skills in presenting scientific data and ideas through graphical displays. The unit will involve teaching students how to appropriately collect and analyze data through graphical displays. The New Haven district requires that students are able to develop an answer as to how science and technology in society affect the quality of human life. In addition, the students will be able to determine how technological advances have increased the longevity of human life and in turn increased the size of human populations over the past century due to the development of vaccinations. The unit will also have a significant e-learning component that will allow the students to use software programs and websites that provide students the ability to manipulate data through various programs offered online and software programs.

### Create Graphs Using Spreadsheet Programs

Creating graphs using a spreadsheet program is a simple process once you are familiar with the icons used by the program and where to look for tools located within the toolbar of the program. My instructions are based on having your data already entered into the spreadsheet. The first column of data you entered will be the “x range” of data and this will appear on the horizontal axis. The second column of data you entered will be the “y range” of data and this will appear on the vertical axis. Using the mouse, “highlight” the two columns of data you entered. For example, place the cursor in cell A2 then “left click” and hold while dragging the mouse to cell B6, then “release” the left click on the mouse. Next, move your mouse to the main tool bar and “left click” on INSERT then select CHART or you can click on the icon showing a bar graph in the tool bar. Step one-- CHART TYPE appears, and under CHART TYPE select the type of graph appropriate from the list of standard types of graphs. You can see a sample view of the graph from the chart type you have chosen by clicking on the box in the lower right hand corner labeled as PRESS TO VIEW SAMPLE. Then “left click” on NEXT. Then, the second step -- CHART SOURCE DATA will appear, “left click” on NEXT. The third step, CHART OPTIONS will appear under TITLES provide a CHART TITLE, a VALUE for x-axis, and a VALUE for the y-axis. You can also determine the number of GRIDLINES you want for each axis. You also have the option for have a LEGEND to show for your data simply by checking the box. There may be an option to show the data table along with your graph by selecting that box. Once you have made your selections, then “left click” NEXT. The last step may provide you with the option of placing your chart in a new spreadsheet or placing your chart in with your data table. If you desire to have your graph or chart placed into a word document then just “right click” and then select COPY, and then “right click” and select PASTE wherever you want your graph to appear in your document.

### Examples of Independent and Dependent Variable Identification Statements

The following are different examples of problem statements I would provide to the students to help them practice identifying the dependent and independent variables.

- 1. Students are investigating the effect of different types of soil on the growth of plants.
- 2. Students are investigating the effect of various temperatures of seawater on the growth of fertilized sea urchin eggs.
- 3. Students are investigating the effect of different concentrations of the enzyme pepsin on producing apple juice from apples.
- 4. Students are investigating the effect of different wavelengths of light on the production of oxygen by red algae.
- 5. Students are investigating the effect of different types of nutrient sources on the growth of
Streptococcus mutans.

### Sample Lesson

Lesson: Outbreak of a fictional infectious disease

Lesson description: The students will use their creativity to create a fictional disease that is spreading through the school’s population. Students will collect data regarding the spread of the fictional disease and will first develop a choropleth map depicting the incidence of the fictional disease throughout the school building. Once the map is completed, the students will then take the data develop an appropriate data table to organize their data before choosing the correct graph to analyze the data at the end of the unit.

Objective: Engage students by the creation of a fictional infectious disease that is overtaking the student population at our high school.

Opening Engagement Activity: Students look for a number under their desk that indicates whether they have been infected. The Glowing Germ lotion is spread throughout the room without the students’ knowledge and I announce that the infectious disease they have just created has struck the classroom. Students examine their hands under a long wavelength UV light to determine if they have been exposed to the disease and determine how much they have been exposed based on how much lotion is on their hands. To simulated the spread of the disease in classrooms across the building the students will choose numbers from a hat to determine the number of cases of the disease found in each class and chart their data in a data table developed by each student

Learning Activity: Students collect fictional data and create an appropriate data table to organize their data in suitable format for a choropleth or map chart. On a large piece of butcher paper, I will have previously recorded the number of students in each grade and the number of staff and faculty in the building. I will ask for a volunteer and have the student come pick a number for a bag of numbers that will serve to represent the number of cases of the fictional infectious disease that will break out throughout the school each day of the unit. The students will record this data in a table they have generated in small groups and create their own map of the building only depicting classrooms in order to simply the shape of the building. The students will use their notes on chorolpleth maps and the sample “ World Map of HIV cases” to create their own choropleth map of the infectious outbreak in the school at the end of the unit when all of the data has been collected on the spread of the fictional disease. I will then discuss the key vocabulary words of prevalence and incidence with the students in developing their knowledge of key vocabulary used in epidemiological studies.