Zelda L. Kravitz
Most cells contain chromosomes made up of messages encoded in the DNA molecule. These contain genetic information and interact to determine the way the genetic potential will be expressed. There are predictable patterns to transmission of genetic information. Chromosomes carry many thousands of genes. Chromosomes are paired and genes are paired. Each pair of genes contain specific information for specific traits. One gene of each pair comes from the female parent, and the other one from the male parent. Genes determine the physical and mental traits and are contained within the nucleus of each cell. A gene has the ability to determine one’s hair, eyes, color, skin pigment, ear shape rolling of tongue eye color and many other factors. These genes are found along the DNA molecules within the cell. Genes are also involved in protein production and enzyme production.
Genes that show are dominant. Those that don’t show are recessive or hidden.
. Life seems to be directed by a definite program. In this substance is a stimulant that has the instruction for the organism which specifies not only what the organism can do, but what its form is, whether inside or out. DNA is the substance. The tape from the cell carries messages in a series of chemical units that are linked together. The program or set of instructions consists of those genes. Each gene is a part of the DNA strand. There is a set of characteristics for each gene, and a set of instructions regulating the gene function. All different cells have a copy of their own program. This different program is known as differential expression or differentiation. Differential expression is evident during the embryonic development when an organism develops from a single fertilized egg cell. Through this differential expression, the DNA specifies each of the specialized cells that make the adult. Certain genes may function in response to environment; a dog will make a thicker coat of hair in winter. If there is an infection in the body the program directs antibodies to fight. When a cell is fully differentiated it loses its power of dividing. Since all cells must carry out certain basic functions for life, the functions are chemical operations. The genetic program organizes these molecules in such a way that a living substance is produced. Molecules make up the material of cells, and the chemical properties unique to organized matter. Changes in the DNA pattern can result from a change in the gene pattern, and this results in a mutation.