To begin at home, our Earth is a member of the family of planets and moons known as the solar system. Orbiting our star, the Sun, are the nine planets, and assorted satellites with their own special characteristics. Our solar system is also shared with assorted debris in the form of asteroids, and meteoroids.
The planets basically come in two different types. The Earth-like planets, or "terrestrial", planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. These are small, dense rocky worlds are known as the inner planets.
Unlike the terrestrial planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have no solid surface on which to stand. They are "gas-giants" with complicated wind patterns and storms centers. These large planets are circled by rings and are known as the outer planets.
Pluto, the tiniest planet, is the most distance from the Sun. It doesn't really fall into terrestrial or gas planet categories, it is believed to be icy.
At the center of all these planetary neighbors is our Sun. It is our nearest star and important to our life here on Earth. From ancient times people recognized that the Sun was related to the seasons. It is the basis for our twenty-four hour day, our year of 365-1/4 days, and the division of the year into four seasons.
Our planet's natural satellite is the Moon. The Moon offers the easiest opportunity to transform enjoyment of the sky into predictive science. The Moon is the only other thing in the sky other than the Sun that doesn't look like a point of light to the unaided eye. Its pattern of repeating phases is hard to miss.