The Rev. Dr. Anna Pauline “Pauli” Murray – a lawyer, civil rights activist, and Episcopal priest whose writings were used in the 1954 Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the 1954 Supreme Court
Mamie Till Mobley – mother of Emmett Till who sparked part of the Civil Rights Movement in her actions after the death of her son in Mississippi.
Diane Nash - Freedom Rider and Nonviolent Student Activist
Ella Baker- civil rights leader and mentor to W.E.B. Dubois, Rosa Parks, Thurgood Marshall and Martin Luther King, Jr. She is known as leader and movement creator
Septima Poinsette Clark – teacher; known as the “Mother of the American Civil Rights Movement,”
Fannie Lou Hamer - co-founded the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964; in 1965 ran for Congress in Mississippi.
What is Apartheid?
Apartheid is an oppressive, systemic process the purposely created two separate systems for black and whites in South Africa during 1948 – until the early 1990s. This system of racism allowed the government to put blacks and white, anti-Apartheid supporters in jail without evidence or probable cause. While the official date for the end of Apartheid is given during 1990, many of practices and injustices carried on far beyond that date. There are striking similarities to Apartheid in South Africa and the Civil Rights Movement in America. Apartheid most resembles the Jim Crow Era in America with its passbooks in South Africa and on the opposite side the The Green Book for negro (black) travelers in America. The contrast is that the passbooks used during Apartheid gave permission for black Africans to travel between cities or townships during certain hours and the Green Book held important information to that let black travelers know the, stores, gas stations, places and highways that safely accommodated them.
Question student should consider during this unit
- Are human rights a right/Are they guaranteed?
- Who enforces human rights?
- What or who determines the value of an individual’s life?
- What are the differences between the lives of men and women in Africa/South Africa?
- How might Apartheid compare/connect to Nazism?
- Who is Bram Fischer?
- How did the Rivonia Trial impact South Africa?
- What is the difference between Afrikaans and Afrikaner?
- How have the Jewish people impacted anti-Apartheid and Civil Rights movements?
- What is Hendrik Verwoerd’s impact on South Africa/Apartheid?
- How is lasting political and societal change created?
- Why is history important and what can we learn from it?
- Does history repeat itself?
- How might the Holocaust be compared to Apartheid and the Jim Crow Era/Civil Rights Era (not to be confused with the actual Civil Rights Movement).
- What are the factors that impact and shape history?
- What impacts and shapes politics?
- How did the “end of the Apartheid” impact race relations? How might you compare this to America’s issues with race and Black Lives Matter?
- What were the factors of Apartheid besides government involvement?
- Who are/were the Freedom Riders and how did they impact society?
- How did the Sharpeville Massacre impact society?
- Is violence a means to an end? Does violence bring results?
- What is divestment as it relates to South African Apartheid?
- How are history, politics and economics interconnected?
- What is the African National Congress?
- How did the African National Congress impact South Africa and the world?
- What is the impact of women on the Anti-apartheid Movement?
- What is the impact of women on the Civil Rights Movement?
- Was Winne Mandela a positive influence on behalf of the anti-Apartheid movement?
- If Anti-Apartheid laws were enforced in your neighborhood or in the state of Connecticut how would your life change?
- What is racism?
- How does racism impact the individual, society/the world, genders and cultures?
- What are the characteristics of racism?
- How are communities of color different from white communities?
- How are the bush communities different from cities and villages in Africa?