Beginning the Unit – Hook / Anticipatory Set
Hook/Do Now/Anticipatory Set: matching the quotes and stories of African women with their names. This activity will spark students’ interest.
Knowledge Brain Dump: Have students write a brain map or list everything that they know about Civil Rights. Next have students write everything they know about Africa. This is a twist on the KWL (Know, Want to Know and Learn) chart that students are often asked to do at the beginning of a lesson to determine their knowledge base before beginning a lesson. The KWL chart allows students to list what they know; what they want to know and after completing lessons or the unit—students then return to the document to write what they have learned. You may also wish to use this as a graphic organizer for students who need it as the KWL will allow them to see their actual progression of learning from the beginning of the until through the end.
Word Houdini: You can also ask students to guess what the word Apartheid means. Their answers would be written on paper or on a white board. You can have students work in pairs. The addition of a timer can make it a game or race.
Extended Hook Activity: Modified simulation of special passes with certain privileges during certain times of the day/ certain days of the week. Students will go through this simulation for approximately one week and write a journal or create an online blog posted on Google classroom.
True Story Narratives - One of the easiest ways to introduce students to new learning is to read stories and ask students to give their reactions to the events via white board, small discussion group or oral report out.
Headline History True or False: The teacher will choose headlines during 1948 – 1994 (The early 90’s which began the end of Apartheid.) This particular activity will spark students’ interest and excitement and should be given at least 30 minutes of class time.
Beginning the Lesson – Simulation Activities
RAFT cards: These cards can be used as a discussion topic card or a writing card. The R(role), A (audience), F (format) and T (topic). These cards can be given as students walk into the room and they can be introduced to a situation that may have occurred during South African apartheid times or during the Jim Crow era and civil rights movement in America. As students are given these cards as they walk into the classroom, they will begin the activity based on your desire for either a quick write to be done or quick discussion or “turn n talk” to happen. The cards can be used by individual students, in pairs or with small groups given one card each. RAFT cards can be used for debates or even as a research prompt.
Time Machine Activity: This activity will allow students to experience life during apartheid or the Jim Crow era – students will be given a set of rules that they have to function/live by. Students will be asked to document their feelings regarding the activity either in writing or using short video snippets. Allowing the use of video or the choice to write helps to differentiate the activity and meet student interests.
Telling stories and Questioning: Using stories about African Women who were/are leaders – students will read stories—some of which will be shared with students by the teacher. In a Socratic seminar-like format students ask questions, then log their questions and peers’ questions. Questions and possible answers and evidence should be discussed. Evidence from their readings to support possible answers or theories should be cited. Students will also use those questions to help drive their research. The addition of questioning to the “Telling Stories” activities is in alignment with the goals of New Haven Public Schools. Questioning is one of the Problems of Instructional Practice (POIP) for the district.
Comparison and Contrasting: Chart or create a product that contains how the Apartheid and the Civil Rights Movement/Jim Crow Era were similar and different. This activity will require Depth of Knowledge (Karen Hess). Activity should be done near the end of the lessons/unit.
Writing and Journaling Activities:
Topic: Imagine that you are living during the time when Apartheid officially ends. Describe what your life is like over the course of several days/journal entries. Use evidence to support from the resources you have studied, read or viewed.
Topic: After sharing a story or article about a particular woman being studied in the unit. Students are to write a “A day in the life of” diary entry, assuming the identity of that woman.
Topic: Use a world event or current event/crisis. Discuss the facts of the event without student opinions—discuss for understanding. Allow students to ask questions; formulate their questions on stickies. Next, ask students to write about how that person would handle the issue, event or conflict. assuming the identity of that woman.
Quote interpretations: Students can be given quotes to interpret in writing or their journals and or spark peer-to-peer, whole class or small group conversations.
“Thus in South Africa it is very expensive to be poor. It is the poor people who stay furthest from town and therefore have to spend more money on transport to come and work for white people; it is the poor people who use uneconomic and inconvenient fuel like paraffin and coal because of the refusal of the white man to install electricity in black areas; it is the poor people who are governed by many ill-defined restrictive laws and therefore have to spend money on fines for 'technical' offences; it is the poor people who have no hospitals and are therefore exposed to exorbitant charges by private doctors; it is the poor people who use untarred roads, have to walk long distances, and therefore experience the greatest wear and tear on commodities like shoes; it is the poor people who have to pay for their children's books while whites get them free.” - by Bantu Stephen Biko, I Write What I Like:
"The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.” -by Bantu Stephen Biko
I am not sorry. I will never be sorry. I would do everything I did again if I had to. Everything. -by Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
“I dream of an Africa which is in peace with itself.” - by Nelson Mandela
“If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.” - by Nelson Mandela
“Women are the people who are going to relieve us from all this oppression and depression. The rent boycott that is happening in Soweto now is alive because of the women. It is the women who are on the street committees educating the people to stand up and protect each other." by Albertina Sisulu
“If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.”- by Nelson Mandela
“As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.”- by Nelson Mandela
Whole-Class lessons (Students can also be assessed during the following lessons.):
Create a timeline - Develop a timeline of America and South African Apartheid -This activity can take many different formats.
Museum walk/Gallery walk - The is activity can be done as a with students working teams or cooperative groupings. Students chose or are given a section of time in to compare using the time in America and the time in South Africa. This can be a creative activity for students who may design their time frame which must meet certain requirements. Students can help develop a project rubric during a whole class activity. Participation in rubric development fosters “buy in” and allows students to become familiar with assignment expectations.
Debate: Human Rights and Apartheid – In this debate students will use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to discuss pro and con arguments using “articles” from the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights as well as research developed through peer work. Students will participate weekly research sessions and keep an active notebook. Possible Debate Topics: