The cardiovascular system consists of arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymph vessels. These internal body parts send oxygen, blood, and other nutrients throughout the body cells, muscles, tissues, and organs. In other words, the cardiovascular system is responsible for blood flow throughout the human body, thus earning its nickname as the circulatory system. It allows all of the other systems in the human body to work together. In addition to sending nourishment to the proper areas of the body, the cardiovascular system aids the digestive system in waste removal.
Arteries, veins, and capillaries are the three main types of blood vessels in the human body. Arteries take blood away from the heart and push it out to the rest of the body, veins bring blood back to the heart, and capillaries connect arteries and veins.
The human body is full of trillions of tiny cells that float around in tissue fluid
. Cells stay alive and healthy by taking oxygen and nutrients from the tissue fluid. Blood vessels act as guides creating pathways for blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. Blood must travel smoothly everywhere from our hair to our toenails and from the cornea of our eyes to the enamel in each of our teeth
. In this way, the cardiovascular system is responsible for replenishing tissue fluid throughout the body with new nutrients and fresh oxygen. If waste and toxins are not removed from cells on a regular basis, then the cells become poisoned and die. It is the role of white blood cells to find and kill bacteria and viruses before they infect the body
. White blood cells are one of the most important players in the circulatory system because they prevent bodily infections that have the potential to become life-threatening diseases.
The human heart is the central organ in the cardiovascular system. The heart is split into two sides. The right side of the heart pumps all blood that lacks oxygen to the lungs where blood cells receive new oxygen to carries throughout the body. Then the left side of the heart pushes the new oxygen in the direction of vital organs. When the organs have consumed most of the oxygen, veins coming from each organ carry the blood to the superior and inferior vena cavae. The superior and inferior vena cavae return the blood into the right side of the heart where it travels to the lungs once again
The cardio-acceleratory center, located in the brain, speeds up heart rate during exercise or stressful moments. It is necessary for the heart to circulate oxygen at a faster rate during exercise and stress because muscles need oxygen faster in order to perform at their peek. The cardio-acceleratory center works through the sympathetic nervous system.
When a person is at rest, the cardio-inhibitory center, also located in the brain, works with the parasympathetic nervous system to slow the number of heartbeats per minute.
Instability Within the Cardiovascular System
If the cardiovascular system fails, serious problems can occur. A heart attack involves a shortage of oxygen supply to the heart. This often happens when the coronary arteries becomes partially blocked. A mix of fat and cholesterol is the most common form of plaque build up to block the arteries and stop blood flow to part of the heart muscle. In addition, fat buildup that blocks the cerebral arteries can also affect blood flow to the brain. If there is a shortage of blood flow to the brain, there is a very sudden change in brain activity. This is called a stroke. Symptoms of a stroke include: sudden paralysis to one side of the body, loss of sensation, loss of speech, vision impairment, confusion, or disorientation. A stroke is a very serious medical emergency. Anyone who seems to be having a stroke must be taken to the hospital.
Common Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases
Poor eating habits are a factor in developing a cardiovascular disease. Eating too much fatty food increases a person's chance of building up plaque that can block blood flow to coronary arteries. Lack of exercise is another major lifestyle choice that affects the cardiovascular system. A lack of sufficient exercise can weaken the heart. It can be strengthened just like skeletal muscles.
Loss of insulin secreting cells in the pancreas causes Type-1 diabetes. This is referred to as juvenile onset because it strikes children.
Type-2 diabetes is caused by a loss of insulin receptors and some insulin secreting cells. This form of diabetes is called adult onset. Too much sugar in the diet leads to too much blood glucose. High, unregulated blood glucose is the biggest risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes.