Vocabulary: Week 1
Muscle – bundles of stretchy fiber that shorten (contract) and relax (extend)
Voluntary muscle – muscles a person can use to control, arms, legs, chest, back. Attached to the human skeleton
Involuntary muscle – muscles you cannot control, heart, digestive muscles
Tendon – a thick cord that attaches all muscle to bone
Contraction – when a muscle tightens because it is doing work
Bone – made of living cells, blood vessels, calcium, and nerves, hard, spongy core
Periosteum – outer shell of bone, surrounds the core, made of cells that can replace and repair broken bone
Blood cells – made inside marrow
Marrow – soft jelly-like substance found inside large bones, produces millions of red blood cells every day
Synovial Joint – when two bones meet to form a moveable joint
Ligaments – a specific type of cartilage, elastic fibers that hold two bones of the joint together
Cartilage – elastic fibers, protect bones from wearing away or rubbing against each other
Vocabulary: Week 2
Abduction – movement of a bone away from the midline of the body
Absorption – when the body takes nutrients into the bloodstream
Adduction – movement of a bone towards the midline of the body, the opposite of abduction
Antagonist – a muscle that works opposite another muscle when an action is performed (e.g. the tricep is the antagonist when an athlete performs a bicep curl)
Veins – blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
Arteries – blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries – microscopic blood vessels that connect the complex network of veins to the network of arteries
Adrenaline – a hormone that increases metabolic and heart rate. Creates a moment of extreme energy
Vocabulary: Week 3
Caloric intake - total number of calories a person eats over the course of a day
Life expectancy - the average number of years a person lives
Water - a molecule that contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, water represents 45-60% of the human body
Protein - essential nutrient that is important to your health, made out of amino acids
Carbohydrates - organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, carbohydrates provide the human body with energy, carbs can turn into fat if not burned off
Sugar - sweet-flavored substance used in many foods to make them taste better, lots of sugar is not good for the body
Fat - fatty tissue and oils that do not dissolve in water. High fat diets are associated with disease.
Fruits - fruits are naturally growing substances, they represent good carbohydrates that burn slowly in the body
Grains - carbohydrates such as breads, cereals, rice, pasta
Dairy - carbohydrates that have a higher protein content such as milk or cheese
Vegetables - good carbohydrates that are naturally growing and provide many nutritional needs
Proteins - meat, fish, nuts, fuel for your muscles
Iron – present in all cells of the body, commonly found in meat and poultry
Zinc - increases appetite, a lack of zinc in the body can cause anorexia
Vocabulary: Week 4
Body mass index – comparison of weight and height
Height - length from your feet to the top of your head, measured in centimeters, feet and/or inches
Weight - how much mass a person's body contains
Percentile -comparison of one person to the total human population, nth percentile means a person is taller than n% of people for a given age group
Lean - lacking fat
Vocabulary: Week 5
Metabolic rate – the rate that chemical reactions take place inside the body
Heart rate – quantifies the number of heartbeats per minute
Blood pressure – pressure in arteries during and between heartbeats
Hypertension - high blood pressure
Energy – measured in calories burned or consumed
Calories burned – the number of calories expended during exercise or physical activity
Moderate intensity – a workout rate at which you could hold a conversation
Vigorous intensity – a workout rate with very little rest in between sets and reps
Miles per hour – a ratio between miles and hours
Aerobic workout – low intensity physical activity, using oxygen
Low impact aerobics – good for your heart
High impact aerobics – good for your bones
Anaerobic workout – short during, high intensity physical activity, calls upon muscle endurance instead of oxygen flow
Muscles-trengthening activities – activities that breakdown muscles, muscles repair themselves and grow back stronger, mass increases over time
Bone-strengthening activities – impact and tension promotes bone growth
Pace – the rate at which a person is doing work
Balance – using muscles and bones in inner ear to stabilize the human body
Stretching – increases length and decreases tension inside muscles
Total Energy Expenditure – rate of expenditure multiplied by the total workout time
1) Identify two problems with the American diet.
2) Why does eating less food not solve the problem for many American children who want to lose weight?
3) What is at stake for young children and adults who are obese?
4) Name one of the two cardiovascular diseases we have studied that result from plaque buildup in arterial areas. Explain what the disease is and how it affects the human body.
5) What are several ways to help prevent cardiovascular disease?
6) What does it mean to have a healthy body weight? You may discuss the Body Mass Index (BMI) in your answer?
7) Do you know anyone who has had diabetes? Please discuss this person's symptoms and relate them to your studies of diabetes and insulin regulation.
8) Why is too much glucose bad?
9) Why is it important to drink milk or eat foods that are high in calcium? Be sure to compare and contrast why children and adults both need calcium in their diet.
10) Why is the Body Mass Index (BMI) not a perfect measure of a person's physical fitness? Think about the BMI of professional athletes. Discuss the legitimacy of using one fixed scale to compare the bodies of children, adults, and athletes alike.
Title: "What does BMI really tell us about a person?
Topic: Calculating Body Mass Index
Objective: Students will use the Body Mass Index chart to calculate the BMI of their favorite professional or Olympic athletes. Then, students will compare and contrast the BMI categories of athletes that play different sports. This activity is meant to encourage students to look past the numbers. We cannot measure physical fitness solely based on numbers and simple calculations. Students should be able to use their knowledge of the limits of the BMI scale to explain in detail why most football players, basketball players, sprinters, and body builders are not unhealthy or "overweight" despite their high BMI. Additionally, students should be able to explain why some soccer players are in great shape even though they may have a very low BMI. What does BMI tell us about athletes if it does not give us an accurate measurement of their body fat? A low BMI allows physical trainers to more carefully monitor athletes for dehydration. Doctors are careful to check the blood pressure and heart rate of athletes with a high BMI.
Title: "You Are What You Eat!"
Topic: Comparing the diets of two professional athletes: Ray Allen and Michael Phelps
Objective: As a class, take a close look into articles releasing the diets of NBA star Ray Allen (http://www.healthcentral.com/obesity/c/59238/113384/celtic-basketball) and Olympic Gold Medalist Michael Phelps (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,403803,00.html). More important than the diets themselves, students should be able to explain how both athletes maximize their caloric intake through intense workout routines. Michael Phelps is able to maintain a 12,000 calories diet because he spends upwards of 8 hours per day training—he only has to perform occasionally at his peak. Ray Allen, on the other hand, maintains an equally powerful diet in a couple thousand calories. Ray must be more careful about when he eats certain foods because he has to perform at peak capacity three or four times in a given week.
Title: "Food Journal"
Topic: How many calories am I eating each day?
Objective: Students will keep a journal and log what they eat and how many calories they consume daily. This activity is designed to show students exactly what they put in their bodies on a daily basis. In this activity, students will record what they consume for seven straight days. They will look up the number of calories consumed in each meal and break the meal into its primary nutritional ingredients. Each day they will receive a grade for their calculations and the overall balance of their diet. Students will work together in pairs or small groups to analyze the information and discuss trends. This same information will be used to compare the diets of students at Roberto Clemente to the diets of world-class athletes and people with diabetes and other diseases and conditions related to poor nutrition. This activity will review the teaching of units, ratios, unit rates, and graphing.
Title: "Activity Journal"
Topic: How many minute of activity am I doing each day & how many calories do I burn in a day?
Objective: Students will learn the importance of daily physical activity. They will learn that exercise not only makes you feel better, but also helps with memory, mood, and brain function. Students will develop and share strategies for finding time and space to practice different forms of exercise and physical activity.
Title: "Blast Off Game"
Objective: Students will follow the instructions of an interactive computer game to explore healthy food choices and balanced meals. The objective of the game is for kids to reach Planet Power by fueling their rocket with food and physical activity. "Fuel" tanks for each food group help students keep track of their meals and food choices.
Title: "Choose Your Plate"
Topic: Healthy Meal Choices
Objective: Given a blank template of a plate, students use their new knowledge of nutrition to create a meal that incorporates the five main food groups and a healthy ratio of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat.
Title: "Healthy Eating Chart"
Topic: Healthy Meal Choices
Objective: Students will create a healthy eating chart or "cheat sheet" for their 1st grade reading buddies. Students will include their favorite food choices for each food group and a suggested number of servings.