Like oil gas is found underground, often in the same fields. Scientist believe that after millions of years of heat and pressure being applied to prehistoric sea animals and plants being trapped in sediment, caused them to change to crude oil and natural gas. The properties of natural gas are colorless odorless, and lighter than air.
Drilling is the method used to locate gas. It is brought to the surface in pipes. It rises automatically because it is under a lot of pressure and lighter than air.
Gas has many uses. The industries that produce canned and frozen fruits, mills that convert grains into breakfast foods, dairy plants, and bread companies all use gas. Some “products which use chemicals from natural gas are inks, glue, and other adhesives, paints, explosives, anti-freeze compounds, synthetic rubber and many kinds of plastics, fibers such as nylon, insect repellents, photographic film, detergents, and solvents.”
Once gas has been located it is sent to the cleaning plant where it is cleaned and an odor is added. It is of the utmost importance that the odor is added because it is dangerous to breathe in heavy concentrations and easily ignited. After gas has been cleaned it is sent by pipeline to be stored.
Gas produced from a field or existing in a field is termed raw gas, that gas in its natural state. Through the process of partically removing certain hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons from the raw gas, it is the marketable natural gas. This is often referred to as pipeline gas, residue gas or sales gas.
The porous sedimentary rock where natural gas is formed is composed of natural reservoirs which allows space for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small quantities of various nonhydrocarbons in the gaseous phase. Or it may be in a solution with oil in natural underground reservoirs. Usually the principle hydrocarbons contained in the mixture are methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes. In natural gas reservoirs the typical nonhydrocarbon gases are carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen.
Natural gas liquids become available solely by separation from produced natural gas. The availability rate depends on the rate of production from crude oil or from natural gas reservoirs.
Natural gas liquids are comprised of hydrocarbon compounds (propane, butane, and pentanes-plus, referred to as condensates) or a combination of the previous gases subject to recovery from raw gas liquids. This procedure is done by processing it in the field by separators and scrubbers, in the processing and reprocessing plant or cycling plants. The components butane and propane are referred to as liquified petroleum gases or LPG.